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DNA double strand break (DSB) repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is initiated by DSB detection by Ku70/80 (Ku) and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) recruitment, which promotes pathway progression through poorly defined mechanisms. Here, Ku and DNA-PKcs solution structures alone and in complex with DNA, defined by x-ray(More)
The Artemis nuclease is defective in radiosensitive severe combined immunodeficiency patients and is required for the repair of a subset of ionising radiation induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in an ATM and DNA-PK dependent process. Here, we show that Artemis phosphorylation by ATM and DNA-PK in vitro is primarily attributable to S503, S516 and S645(More)
Two highly conserved double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways, homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), function in all eukaryotes. How a cell chooses which pathway to utilize is an area of active research and debate. During NHEJ, the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) functions as a "gatekeeper" regulating DNA end access.(More)
Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is the major pathway for the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in human cells. NHEJ requires the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), Ku70, Ku80, XRCC4, DNA ligase IV and Artemis, as well as DNA polymerases mu and lambda and polynucleotide kinase. Recent studies have identified an(More)
The protein kinase activity of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is required for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) via the process of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). However, to date, the only target shown to be functionally relevant for the enzymatic role of DNA-PK in NHEJ is the large catalytic subunit DNA-PKcs itself. In vitro,(More)
Human polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP) is a dual specificity 5'-DNA kinase/3'-DNA phosphatase, with roles in base excision repair, DNA single-strand break repair and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ); yet precisely how PNKP functions in the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) remains unclear. We demonstrate that PNKP is phosphorylated by the(More)
XRCC4 and XLF are structurally related proteins important for DNA Ligase IV function. XRCC4 forms a tight complex with DNA Ligase IV while XLF interacts directly with XRCC4. Both XRCC4 and XLF form homodimers that can polymerize as heterotypic filaments independently of DNA Ligase IV. Emerging structural and in vitro biochemical data suggest that XRCC4 and(More)
DNA ligase IV (LigIV) is critical for nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), the major DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway in human cells, and LigIV activity is regulated by XRCC4 and XLF (XRCC4-like factor) interactions. Here, we employ small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data to characterize three-dimensional arrangements in solution for full-length(More)
The XRCC4-like factor (XLF)-XRCC4 complex is essential for nonhomologous end joining, the major repair pathway for DNA double strand breaks in human cells. Yet, how XLF binds XRCC4 and impacts nonhomologous end joining functions has been enigmatic. Here, we report the XLF-XRCC4 complex crystal structure in combination with biophysical and mutational(More)
Replication protein A (RPA) is a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein involved in various processes, including nucleotide excision repair and DNA replication. The 32 kDa subunit of RPA (RPA32) is phosphorylated in response to various DNA-damaging agents, and two protein kinases, ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and the DNA-dependent protein kinase(More)