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Modern multislice computed tomography (CT) scanners produce isotropic CT images with a thickness of 0.6 mm. These CT images offer detailed information of lung cavities, which could be used for better surgical planning of treating lung cancer. The major challenge for developing a surgical planning system is the automatic segmentation of lung lobes by(More)
Proteus mirabilis is a urinary pathogen that can differentiate from a swimmer cell into a swarmer cell morphotype and can form biofilms on the surfaces of urinary catheters. These biofilms block these catheters due to crystals trapped within these structures. The effect of encrustation on biofilm formation and structure has not been studied using confocal(More)
Microbes frequently live within multicellular, solid surface-attached assemblages termed biofilms. These microbial communities have architectural features that contribute to population heterogeneity and consequently to emergent cell functions. Therefore, three-dimensional (3D) features of biofilm structure are important for understanding the physiology and(More)
BACKGROUND Surgical trainees develop surgical skills using various techniques, with simulators providing a safe learning environment. Fracture fixation is the most common procedure in orthopaedic surgery, and residents may benefit from simulated fracture fixation. The performance of residents on a virtual simulator that allows them to practice the surgical(More)
The major hurdle for three-dimensional display of lung lobes is the automatic recognition of lobar fissures, boundaries of lung lobes. Lobar fissures are difficult to recognize due to their variable shape and appearance, along with the low contrast and high noise inherent in computed tomographic (CT) images. An algorithm for recognizing the major fissures(More)
OBJECTIVE Three-dimensional (3D) displays of anatomic structures have become feasible for preoperative planning in some surgical procedures. There have been no reports, however, on the use of 3D displays for surgical treatment of lung cancer. We hypothesized that 3D displays of the thorax are useful for preoperative planning for lung cancer. METHODS Based(More)
In robot-assisted surgery, it may be important to provide force feedback to the hand of the surgeon. Here we examine how force feedback from each degree of freedom (DOF) on a hand controller affects the motion accuracy of a surgical tool. We studied the motion accuracy of a needle-shaped tool in performing a robot-assisted tracing task. On a virtual(More)
Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis are polymorphic fungi that develop antimicrobial-resistant biofilm communities that are characterized by multiple cell morphotypes. This study investigated cell type interconversion and drug and metal resistance as well as community organization in biofilms of these microorganisms that were exposed to metal ions. To(More)
It has been repeatedly demonstrated that the opening between the index finger and thumb (grasp component) during an object-directed reach-to-grasp movement achieves maximum aperture approximately two-thirds of the way through the duration of the reaching movement (transport component). Here we offer a quantitative model of the temporal coupling between grip(More)
Recent studies have shown that three-dimensional (3D) visualization of lung cavities has distinct advantages over multiplanar computed tomographic (CT) images for surgical planning. A crucial step for achieving this 3D visualization is the automatic segmentation of lung lobes. This paper presents a watershed algorithm for segmenting lung lobes in clinical(More)