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Microbes frequently live within multicellular, solid surface-attached assemblages termed biofilms. These microbial communities have architectural features that contribute to population heterogeneity and consequently to emergent cell functions. Therefore, three-dimensional (3D) features of biofilm structure are important for understanding the physiology and(More)
In robot-assisted surgery, it may be important to provide force feedback to the hand of the surgeon. Here we examine how force feedback from each degree of freedom (DOF) on a hand controller affects the motion accuracy of a surgical tool. We studied the motion accuracy of a needle-shaped tool in performing a robot-assisted tracing task. On a virtual(More)
Modern multislice computed tomography (CT) scanners produce isotropic CT images with a thickness of 0.6 mm. These CT images offer detailed information of lung cavities, which could be used for better surgical planning of treating lung cancer. The major challenge for developing a surgical planning system is the automatic segmentation of lung lobes by(More)
PURPOSE The major hurdle for three-dimensional display of lung lobes is the automatic recognition of lobar fissures, boundaries of lung lobes. Lobar fissures are difficult to recognize due to their variable shape and appearance, along with the low contrast and high noise inherent in computed tomographic (CT) images. An algorithm for recognizing the major(More)
It has been repeatedly demonstrated that the opening between the index finger and thumb (grasp component) during an object-directed reach-to-grasp movement achieves maximum aperture approximately two-thirds of the way through the duration of the reaching movement (transport component). Here we offer a quantitative model of the temporal coupling between grip(More)