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During infection, vertebrates limit access to manganese and zinc, starving invading pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, of these essential metals in a process termed "nutritional immunity." The manganese and zinc binding protein calprotectin is a key component of the nutrient-withholding response, and mice lacking this protein do not sequester(More)
The S100A8/S100A9 heterodimer calprotectin (CP) functions in the host response to pathogens through a mechanism termed "nutritional immunity." CP binds Mn(2+) and Zn(2+) with high affinity and starves bacteria of these essential nutrients. Combining biophysical, structural, and microbiological analysis, we identified the molecular basis of Mn(2+)(More)
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen that accounts for up to 20 percent of infections in intensive care units worldwide. Furthermore, A. baumannii strains have emerged that are resistant to all available antimicrobials. These facts highlight the dire need for new therapeutic strategies to combat this growing public health threat.(More)
Clostridium difficile is the most commonly reported nosocomial pathogen in the United States and is an urgent public health concern worldwide. Over the past decade, incidence, severity and costs associated with C. difficile infection (CDI) have increased dramatically. CDI is most commonly initiated by antibiotic-mediated disruption of the gut microbiota;(More)
Selenium (Se) distribution in Se-enriched rice and optimization of extraction for Se-containing protein were studied. Se availability in Se-containing protein product was simulated using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The results showed that Se was predominately found as organic Se, whereas inorganic Se comprised only 2.85% of the total Se. The(More)
BACKGROUND Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a promising drug candidate to combat metabolic diseases. However, high-level expression and purification of recombinant FGF21 (rFGF21) in Escherichia coli (E. coli) is difficult because rFGF21 forms inclusion bodies in the bacteria making it difficult to purify and obtain high concentrations of bioactive(More)
Adipose tissue (AT) expansion is accompanied by the infiltration and accumulation of AT macrophages (ATMs), as well as a shift in ATM polarization. Several studies have implicated recruited M1 ATMs in the metabolic consequences of obesity; however, little is known regarding the role of alternatively activated resident M2 ATMs in AT homeostasis or how their(More)
Macrophages take advantage of the antibacterial properties of copper ions in the killing of bacterial intruders. However, despite the importance of copper for innate immune functions, coordinated efforts to exploit copper ions for therapeutic interventions against bacterial infections are not yet in place. Here we report a novel high-throughput screening(More)
The reactive nature of heme enables its use as an enzymatic cofactor while rendering excess heme toxic. The importance of heme detoxification machinery is highlighted by the presence of various types of these homeostatic systems in Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. A number of pathogens possess orthologs of the HssRS/HrtAB heme detoxification(More)
UNLABELLED Staphylococcus aureus is a significant cause of infections worldwide and is able to utilize aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, or fermentation as the means by which it generates the energy needed for proliferation. Aerobic respiration is supported by heme-dependent terminal oxidases that catalyze the final step of aerobic respiration,(More)