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Genetic strategies that reduce or block pathogen transmission by mosquitoes have been proposed as a means of augmenting current control measures to reduce the growing burden of vector-borne diseases. The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia has long been promoted as a potential vehicle for introducing disease-resistance genes into mosquitoes, thereby making(More)
Cellular life emerged ∼3.7 billion years ago. With scant exception, terrestrial organisms have evolved under predictable daily cycles owing to the Earth's rotation. The advantage conferred on organisms that anticipate such environmental cycles has driven the evolution of endogenous circadian rhythms that tune internal physiology to external conditions. The(More)
Wolbachia is a maternally transmitted symbiotic bacterium of insects that has been proposed as a potential agent for the control of insect-transmitted diseases. One of the major limitations preventing the development of Wolbachia for malaria control has been the inability to establish inherited infections of Wolbachia in anopheline mosquitoes. Here, we(More)
KaiC from Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 (KaiC) is an essential circadian clock protein in cyanobacteria. Previous sequence analyses suggested its inclusion in the RecADnaB superfamily. A characteristic of the proteins of this superfamily is that they form homohexameric complexes that bind DNA. We show here that KaiC also forms ring complexes with a(More)
Using model strains in which we ectopically express the cyanobacterial clock protein KaiC in cells from which the clock genes kaiA, kaiB and/or kaiC are deleted, we found that some features of circadian clocks in eukaryotic organisms are conserved in the clocks of prokaryotic cyanobacteria, but others are not. One unexpected difference is that the circadian(More)
Cyanobacteria are the only model circadian clock system in which a circadian oscillator can be reconstituted in vitro. The underlying circadian mechanism appears to comprise two subcomponents: a post-translational oscillator (PTO) and a transcriptional/translational feedback loop (TTFL). The PTO and TTFL have been hypothesized to operate as dual oscillator(More)
It is proposed here that the delayed cytotoxicity of thioguanine involves the postreplicative DNA mismatch repair system. After incorporation into DNA, the thioguanine is chemically methylated by S-adenosylmethionine to form S6-methylthioguanine. During DNA replication, the S6-methylthioguanine directs incorporation of either thymine or cytosine into the(More)
The cyanobacterial circadian clock can be reconstituted in vitro by mixing recombinant KaiA, KaiB and KaiC proteins with ATP, producing KaiC phosphorylation and dephosphorylation cycles that have a regular rhythm with a ca. 24-h period and are temperature-compensated. KaiA and KaiB are modulators of KaiC phosphorylation, whereby KaiB antagonizes KaiA's(More)
Circadian (daily) biological clocks express characteristics that are difficult to explain by known biochemical mechanisms, and will ultimately require characterizing the structures, functions, and interactions of their molecular components. KaiC is an essential circadian protein in cyanobacteria that forms the core of the KaiABC clock protein complex. We(More)
Ascorbate is a primary antioxidant and an essential enzyme cofactor in plants, which has an important effect on the development of plant root system. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of ascorbate accumulation during root development and reveal the key genes of the ascorbate biosynthesis and recycling pathways, the expression of 16 related genes(More)