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PURPOSE Intratumoral hypoxia is known to be associated with radioresistance and metastasis. The present study examined the effect of acute and chronic hypoxia on the metastatic potential of prostate cancer PC-3, DU145, and LNCaP cells. METHODS AND MATERIALS Cell proliferation and clonogenicity were tested by MTT assay and colony formation assay,(More)
OBJECTIVES Regulation of autophagy and apoptosis during treatment of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) with pro-atherogenic stimuli, such as oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS We examined the expression of autophagy and apoptosis upon treatment of VSMCs with ox-LDL. Exposure to ox-LDL in modest amounts(More)
Our studies in HUVECs show that ox-LDL induced autophagy and damaged mtDNA leading to TLR9 expression. LOX-1 antibody or the ROS inhibitor apocynin attenuated ox-LDL-mediated autophagy, mtDNA damage and TLR9 expression, suggesting that these events are LOX-1 and ROS-dependent phenomena. Experiments using siRNA to DNase II indicated that DNase II digests(More)
BACKGROUND Celastrol is a natural proteasome inhibitor that exhibits promising anti-tumor effects in human malignancies, especially the androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) with constitutive NF-κB activation. Celastrol induces apoptosis by means of proteasome inhibition and suppresses prostate tumor growth. However, the detailed mechanism of action(More)
Antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family proteins are overexpressed in prostate cancer and are promising molecular targets for modulating chemoresistance of prostate cancer. (-)-Gossypol, a natural BH3 mimetic, is a small-molecule inhibitor of Bcl-2/Bcl-xL/Mcl-1 currently in phase II clinical trials as an adjuvant therapy for human prostate cancer. Our(More)
Embelin is an active ingredient of traditional herbal medicine that exhibits anti-tumor effects in human prostate cancer cells. However, therapeutic effect of embelin in combination with conventional radiation therapy is not yet determined. In this study, we evaluate the sensitizing potential of embelin on ionizing radiation (IR) in a human prostate cancer(More)
Studies have indicated that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists reduce infarct size after myocardial ischaemia. Whether these agents modify cardiac remodelling after ischaemia is unclear. Furthermore, it is not known if combination of the two types of drugs is superior to either agent alone. We investigated(More)
AIMS Lectin-like ox-LDL scavenger receptor-1 (LOX-1) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage play a key role in a variety of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and inflammation. We posited that damaged mtDNA could trigger autophagy and NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and LOX-1 may play a critical role in this process. METHODS(More)
Anti-atherosclerotic effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have been shown in many studies. Since inflammation and immune response play a key role in atherogenesis, we examined the effect of DPP-4 inhibitors on the expression of nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) Inflammasome and Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in human(More)