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BACKGROUND Anti-atherosclerotic effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have been shown in many studies. Since inflammation and immune response play a key role in atherogenesis, we examined the effect of DPP-4 inhibitors on the expression of nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) Inflammasome and Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β)(More)
Studies have indicated that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists reduce infarct size after myocardial ischaemia. Whether these agents modify cardiac remodelling after ischaemia is unclear. Furthermore, it is not known if combination of the two types of drugs is superior to either agent alone. We investigated(More)
AIMS Lectin-like ox-LDL scavenger receptor-1 (LOX-1) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage play a key role in a variety of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and inflammation. We posited that damaged mtDNA could trigger autophagy and NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and LOX-1 may play a critical role in this process. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Celastrol is a natural proteasome inhibitor that exhibits promising anti-tumor effects in human malignancies, especially the androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) with constitutive NF-κB activation. Celastrol induces apoptosis by means of proteasome inhibition and suppresses prostate tumor growth. However, the detailed mechanism of action(More)
Chronic infections have been shown to enhance atherogenicity. However, the association between chronic hepatitis C (HCV) and coronary heart disease (CHD) remains controversial. We examined the risk for CHD events in patients with HCV with an emphasis on the risk of CHD events with active infection. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the(More)
BACKGROUND Although tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising agent for human cancer therapy, prostate cancer still remains resistant to TRAIL. Both X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) and nuclear factor-kappaB function as key negative regulators of TRAIL signaling. In this study, we evaluated the effect of SH122, a(More)
Our studies in HUVECs show that ox-LDL induced autophagy and damaged mtDNA leading to TLR9 expression. LOX-1 antibody or the ROS inhibitor apocynin attenuated ox-LDL-mediated autophagy, mtDNA damage and TLR9 expression, suggesting that these events are LOX-1 and ROS-dependent phenomena. Experiments using siRNA to DNase II indicated that DNase II digests(More)
OBJECTIVES Regulation of autophagy and apoptosis during treatment of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) with pro-atherogenic stimuli, such as oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS We examined the expression of autophagy and apoptosis upon treatment of VSMCs with ox-LDL. Exposure to ox-LDL in modest amounts(More)