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For perennial woody plants, softwood cutting is an efficient technique for larger scale propagation and adventitious rooting of cuttings is one of the most crucial steps. To evaluate the significance of juvenility on adventitious rooting, rooting rates was compared between softwood cuttings collected from apomictic seedlings (juvenile), in vitro cultured(More)
This paper reviews the current understanding of powder mixed electrical discharge machining (PMEDM), highlighting particularly the mechanisms proposed for PMEDM under the influence of additive of powders in the dielectric fluids. Generally, the mirror surface phenomenon in PMEDM can be explained by the enlarged gap widths which can expand the discharge(More)
Dispensing and manipulation of small droplets is important in bioassays, chemical analysis and patterning of functional inks. So far, dispensing of small droplets has been achieved by squeezing the liquid out of a small orifice similar in size to the droplets. Here we report that instead of squeezing the liquid out, small droplets can also be dispensed(More)
Engineering ceramics have been widely used in modern industry for their excellent physical and mechanical properties, and they are difficult to machine owing to their high hardness and brittleness. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is the appropriate process for machining engineering ceramics provided they are electrically conducting. However, the(More)
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