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Boron is an element of fascinating chemical complexity. Controversies have shrouded this element since its discovery was announced in 1808: the new 'element' turned out to be a compound containing less than 60-70% of boron, and it was not until 1909 that 99% pure boron was obtained. And although we now know of at least 16 polymorphs, the stable phase of(More)
Disordered structures of boron nitride (BN), graphite, boron carbide (BC), and boron carbon nitride (BCN) systems are considered important precursor materials for synthesis of superhard phases in these systems. However, phase transformation of such materials can be achieved only at extreme pressure-temperature conditions, which is irrelevant to industrial(More)
In situ x-ray diffraction study of the hexagonal 6H SiC under pressure and shear in rotational diamond anvil cell is performed that reveals phase transformation to the new high-density amorphous (hda) phase SiC. In contrast to known low-density amorphous SiC, hda-SiC is promoted by pressure and unstable under pressure release. The critical combination of(More)
Plastic shear significantly reduces the phase transformation (PT) pressure when compared to hydrostatic conditions. Here, a paradoxical result was obtained: PT of graphitelike hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) to superhard wurtzitic boron nitride under pressure and shear started at about the same pressure ( approximately 10 GPa) as under hydrostatic conditions.(More)
New results suggest that changes observed in the intrinsic toroidal rotation influence in the internal transport barrier (ITB) formation in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak [ 1 E. S. Marmar and Alcator C-Mod group, Fusion Science and Technology 51, 261 (2007)]. These arise when the resonance for ICRF minority heating is positioned off-axis at or outside of the(More)
The interface effect is one of the most important factors that strongly affect the structural transformations and the properties of nano-/submicro-crystals under pressure. However, characterization of the granular boundary changes in materials is always challenging. Here, using tetrakaidecahedral Zn2SnO4 microcrystals as an example, we employed alternating(More)
Combined high pressure phase transformations (PTs) and plastic flow in a sample within a gasket compressed in diamond anvil cell (DAC) are studied for the first time using finite element method. The key point is that phase transformations are modelled as strain-induced, which involves a completely different kinetic description than for traditional(More)
Assessing the performance of lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) at high density is critical for developing non-inductive current drive systems on future steady-state experiments. Excellent LHCD efficiency has been observed during fully non-inductive operation (η = 2. To extend these results to advanced tokamak regimes with higher bootstrap current fractions(More)
Acknowledgements This Habilitation thesis presents my work of the last 5 years, mostly done at ETH Zurich and partly at University College London. This was a really exciting time, and I owe a great deal of gratitude to my numerous colleagues and friends. Price: For his friendship and inspiring discussions, both scientific and personal. David's style (best(More)