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The proinflammatory and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-inducible cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF ) has been shown to enhance primary sensory nociceptive signaling. However, the precise cellular sites of TNF and TNF receptor synthesis are still a matter of controversy. Therefore, we differentiated the neuronal and non-neuronal sites of TNF , TNFR1, and TNFR2(More)
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Conventional cancer therapies mainly focus on mass cell killing without high specificity and often cause severe side effects and toxicities. Peptides are a novel class of anticancer agents that could specifically target cancer cells with lower toxicity to normal tissues, which will offer new(More)
UNLABELLED We sought to determine whether local administration of pentoxifylline (PTF) or propentofylline (PPTF), which hinders cytokine production, influences pain threshold and formalin-induced pain behavior in rats or the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) messenger RNA (mRNA) concentrations in the inflamed paw tissue. PTF (0.5, 1, or 2 mg)(More)
Glycated albumin, an early-glycation Amadori-modified protein, stimulates transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) expression and increases the production of the extracellular matrix proteins in mesangial cells, contributing to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Glycated albumin has been shown to increase NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS We have previously demonstrated that a transcription factor, upstream stimulatory factor 2 (USF2), regulates glucose-induced thrombospondin 1 expression and transforming growth factor-β activity in mesangial cells, and plays an important role in diabetic glomerulopathy. In this study, we determined whether USF2 expression in renal proximal(More)
In sensory neurons heat is transduced by a subfamily of TRP channels sharing sequence homology with the capsaicin-sensitive vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (TRPV1), but differing in their thermal response thresholds. To identify a neuronal cell line endogenously expressing noxious heat-transducing ion channels, we examined F-11 cells, a hybridoma derived from(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity is prevalent worldwide and is associated with insulin resistance. Advanced studies suggest that obesity-associated low-grade chronic inflammation contributes to the development of insulin resistance and other metabolic complications. Thrombospondin 1 (TSP1) is a multifunctional extracellular matrix protein that is up-regulated in inflamed(More)
The proinflammatory and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-inducible cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) has been shown to enhance primary sensory nociceptive signaling. However, the precise cellular sites of TNFalpha and TNF receptor synthesis are still a matter of controversy. Therefore, we differentiated the neuronal and non-neuronal sites of TNFalpha,(More)
Activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) are implicated in the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the specific functions of individual ERK isoforms in neurodegeneration are largely unknown. We investigated the hypothesis that ERK2 activation may contribute to pathological and functional deficits following(More)
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase I (PKG-I) is a multifunctional protein. The direct effects of PKG-I activation on energy homeostasis and obesity development are not well understood. Herein, we generated transgenic mice with expression of the constitutively active PKG-I in adipose tissue as well as in other tissues. Male and(More)