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Assessment and characterization of gut microbiota has become a major research area in human disease, including type 2 diabetes, the most prevalent endocrine disease worldwide. To carry out analysis on gut microbial content in patients with type 2 diabetes, we developed a protocol for a metagenome-wide association study (MGWAS) and undertook a two-stage(More)
BACKGROUND Illumina second generation sequencing is now an efficient route for generating enormous sequence collections that represent expressed genes and quantitate expression level. Taxus is a world-wide endangered gymnosperm genus and forms an important anti-cancer medicinal resource, but the large and complex genomes of Taxus have hindered the(More)
Previous research has consistently demonstrated the importance of parents' expectations and adolescents' expectations on adolescents' academic achievement. Less is known, however, about the reciprocal relationships among these constructs. To address this issue, we analyzed two waves of data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88)(More)
Husdpeth, Magnasco, and collaborators have suggested that the auditory system works by tuning a collection of hair cells near Hopf bifurcation, but each with a different frequency. An incoming sound signal to the cochlea then resonates most strongly with one of these hair cells, which then informs the auditory neuronal system of the frequency of the(More)
Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. is a typical halophyte with superior tolerance to salinity. However, little is known about its physiological adaptation mechanisms to the salt environment. In the present study, N. tangutorum seedlings were treated with different concentrations of NaCl (100, 200, 300 and 400 mmol L−1) combined with five levels of Ca2+ (0, 5, 10, 15(More)
BACKGROUND Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) is one of the most active ingredients in Panax ginseng and has been proven to have anti-oxidative and anti-aging properties. However, there have been few reports concerning the anti-aging effects of Rg1 on the hematopoietic microenvironment and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). METHODS Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the frequency and significance of ApoE gene polymorphisms in patients with sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the ApoE gene were analyzed in 32 cases of AD and 26 controls, using PCR and gene sequencing. RESULTS The single nucleotide polymorphism of ApoE gene 462C/G was significantly(More)
The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins is essential for development in both vertebrates and invertebrates. As one of main morphogens during metazoan development, the graded Hh signal is transduced across the plasma membrane by Smoothened (Smo) through the differential phosphorylation of its cytoplasmic tail, leading to pathway activation and the(More)