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Assessment and characterization of gut microbiota has become a major research area in human disease, including type 2 diabetes, the most prevalent endocrine disease worldwide. To carry out analysis on gut microbial content in patients with type 2 diabetes, we developed a protocol for a metagenome-wide association study (MGWAS) and undertook a two-stage(More)
BACKGROUND Illumina second generation sequencing is now an efficient route for generating enormous sequence collections that represent expressed genes and quantitate expression level. Taxus is a world-wide endangered gymnosperm genus and forms an important anti-cancer medicinal resource, but the large and complex genomes of Taxus have hindered the(More)
BACKGROUND Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) is one of the most active ingredients in Panax ginseng and has been proven to have anti-oxidative and anti-aging properties. However, there have been few reports concerning the anti-aging effects of Rg1 on the hematopoietic microenvironment and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). METHODS Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were(More)
Post-ischemic inflammation is an essential step in the progression of brain ischemia injury. P2X4 receptors are the predominant purinergic P2X receptor subtypes expressed on immune and neural cells. The subtype traffic between intracellular compartments and the plasma membrane form protein interactions with each other to regulate ATP-dependent signaling.(More)
The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins is essential for development in both vertebrates and invertebrates. As one of main morphogens during metazoan development, the graded Hh signal is transduced across the plasma membrane by Smoothened (Smo) through the differential phosphorylation of its cytoplasmic tail, leading to pathway activation and the(More)
Mutations of the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are the leading cause of genetically inherited Parkinson's disease (PD) and its more severe variant diffuse Lewy body disease (DLB). Pathological mutations in Lrrk2 are autosomal dominant, suggesting a gain of function. Mutations in alpha-synuclein also produce autosomal dominant disease. Here we(More)