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Assessment and characterization of gut microbiota has become a major research area in human disease, including type 2 diabetes, the most prevalent endocrine disease worldwide. To carry out analysis on gut microbial content in patients with type 2 diabetes, we developed a protocol for a metagenome-wide association study (MGWAS) and undertook a two-stage(More)
Nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous signaling molecule in animals and plants, mediates responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Our previous work demonstrated that 100 μM sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO donor) treatment of maize seedlings increased K+ accumulation in roots, leaves and sheathes, while decreasing Na+ accumulation (Zhang et al. in J Plant(More)
We determined the role of Phospholipase Dalpha1 (PLDalpha1) and its lipid product phosphatidic acid (PA) in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Arabidopsis thaliana guard cells. The pldalpha1 mutant failed to produce ROS in guard cells in response to ABA. ABA stimulated NADPH oxidase activity in wild-type guard cells(More)
microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in plant growth and development. Previous studies have shown that down-regulation of miR398 in response to oxidative stress permits up-regulation of one of its target genes, CSD2 (copper/zinc superoxide dismutase), and thereby helps plants to cope with oxidative stress. We report here that heat stress rapidly induces(More)
Global atmospheric emissions of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from 69 major sources were estimated for a period from 1960 to 2030. Regression models and a technology split method were used to estimate country and time specific emission factors, resulting in a new estimate of PAH emission factor variation among different countries and over time.(More)
Cold stress resulting from chilling and freezing temperatures substantially reduces crop production worldwide. To identify genes critical for cold tolerance in plants, we screened Arabidopsis thaliana mutants for deregulated expression of a firefly luciferase reporter gene under the control of the C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR2 (CBF2) promoter (CBF2:LUC). A(More)
BACKGROUND Illumina second generation sequencing is now an efficient route for generating enormous sequence collections that represent expressed genes and quantitate expression level. Taxus is a world-wide endangered gymnosperm genus and forms an important anti-cancer medicinal resource, but the large and complex genomes of Taxus have hindered the(More)
In Arabidopsis thaliana, six vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporters (AtNHX1-6) were identified. Among them, AtNHX1, 2 and 5 are functional Na(+)/H(+) antiporters with the most abundant expression levels in seedling shoots and roots. However, the expression of AtNHX3 in Arabidopsis can only be detected by RT-PCR, and its physiological function still remains(More)
Although long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) predominately reside in the nucleus and exert their functions in many biological processes, their potential involvement in cytoplasmic signal transduction remains unexplored. Here, we identify a cytoplasmic lncRNA, LINK-A (long intergenic non-coding RNA for kinase activation), which mediates HB-EGF-triggered,(More)
It is known that a senescing leaf loses water faster than a non-senescing leaf and that ABA has an important role in promoting leaf senescence. However, questions such as why water loss is faster, how water loss is regulated, and how ABA functions in leaf senescence are not well understood. Here we report on the identification and functional analysis of a(More)