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Natural organs are spatially heterogeneous, both in material composition and in the cell types within. Engineered tissues, in contrast, remain challenging to create, especially if the goal is to spatially position multiple cell types in a heterogeneous pattern in three dimensions (3D). Here, we describe a simple, inexpensive, yet extremely precise method to(More)
Autapse is an unusual type of synapse generated by a neuron on itself. The ability to monitor axonal growth of single neurons and autapse formation in three-dimensions (3D) may provide fundamental information relating to many cellular processes, such as axonal development, synaptic plasticity and neural signal transmission. However, monitoring such growth(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor in adults because of its highly invasive behavior. The existing treatment for GBM, which involves a combination of resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, has a very limited success rate with a median survival rate of <1 year. This is mainly because of the failure of early(More)
Angiogenesis is an indispensable mechanism in physiological and pathological development of tumors that requires an adequate blood supply. Therefore, understanding the angiogenesis mechanism of tumors has become an important research area to develop reliable and effective therapies for the treatment of tumors. Although several in vivo and in vitro models(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and malignant of all human primary brain cancers, in which drug treatment is still one of the most effective treatments. However, existing drug discovery and development methods rely on the use of conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures, which have been proven to be poor representatives of native(More)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive brain tumor, with 12-15 months median survival time despite current treatment efforts. Among the alternative treatment approaches that have gained acceptance over the last decade is the use of replication-competent oncolytic adenoviruses, which are promising due to their relatively low toxicity and tumor-specific(More)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common form of primary brain tumor with a high infiltrative capacity, increased vascularity, and largely elusive tumor progression mechanism. The current GBM treatment methods do not increase the patient survival rate and studies using two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures and in vivo animal models to investigate GBM behavior and(More)
Tumor angiogenesis is a promising target for cancer treatment, because severing the supply of oxygen and nutrients to tumors halts tumor growth. Unfortunately, many anticancer drugs, including angiogenesis inhibitors, fail in clinical trials, despite showing high efficiency during in vitro and in vivo experiments. This inconsistency from in vitro and in(More)
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