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The vast majority of brain tumors in adults exhibit glial characteristics. Brain tumors in children are diverse: Many have neuronal characteristics, whereas others have glial features. Here we show that activation of the Gi protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 is critical for the growth of both malignant neuronal and glial tumors. Systemic administration of CXCR4(More)
Targeted therapies have demonstrated efficacy against specific subsets of molecularly defined cancers. Although most patients with lung cancer are stratified according to a single oncogenic driver, cancers harbouring identical activating genetic mutations show large variations in their responses to the same targeted therapy. The biology underlying this(More)
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES The authors present their initial experience using a 3-T whole-body scanner equipped with a 128-channel coil applied to lung motion assessment. Recent improvements in fast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology have enabled several trials of free-breathing three-dimensional (3D) imaging of the lung. A large number of image(More)
OBJECTIVE To prospectively investigate the number, location, and size of ventilation defects and correlate these findings with pulmonary function tests (PFTs) when performing hyperpolarized helium-3 (HP 3He) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lung in healthy young adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS Six healthy adult female volunteers underwent standard(More)
MRI offers a tremendous armamentarium of different methods that can be employed in brain tumor characterization. MR diffusion imaging has become a widely accepted method to probe for the presence of fluid pools and molecular tissue water mobility. For most clinical applications of diffusion imaging, it is assumed that the diffusion signal vs diffusion(More)
The EGFR T790M mutation has been identified in tumors from lung cancer patients that eventually develop resistance to erlotinib. In this study, we generated a mouse model with doxycycline-inducible expression of a mutant EGFR containing both L858R, an erlotinib-sensitizing mutation, and the T790M resistance mutation (EGFR TL). Expression of EGFR TL led to(More)
Continuous arterial spin labeling (CASL) was used to obtain an index of cerebral blood flow (ICBF) in the normal mouse brain and in an orthotopic mouse model of human U87 high-grade glioma at 8.5 T. Under the assumption of a constant tissue:blood partition coefficient for water in different tissues, the mean ICBF (n = 14) was found to be 50 +/- 9(More)
Mutations in the BRAF and KRAS genes occur in approximately 1% to 2% and 20% to 30% of non-small-cell lung cancer patients, respectively, suggesting that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is preferentially activated in lung cancers. Here, we show that lung-specific expression of the BRAF V600E mutant induces the activation of extracellular(More)
Because there is no background signal from xenon in biological tissue, and because inhaled xenon is delivered to the brain by blood flow, we would expect a perfusion deficit, such as is seen in stroke, to reduce the xenon concentration in the region of the deficit. Thermal polarization yields negligible xenon signal relative to hyperpolarized xenon;(More)
Few data are available on the molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in chickens and ducks in China. In this study, 2579 faecal samples from 46 chicken farms and eight Pekin duck farms in 21 prefectures in Henan Province were examined. The overall infection rate of Cryptosporidium was 10.6% (163/1542) in layer chickens (10 out of 17 farms), 3.4%(More)