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The vast majority of brain tumors in adults exhibit glial characteristics. Brain tumors in children are diverse: Many have neuronal characteristics, whereas others have glial features. Here we show that activation of the Gi protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 is critical for the growth of both malignant neuronal and glial tumors. Systemic administration of CXCR4(More)
Targeted therapies have demonstrated efficacy against specific subsets of molecularly defined cancers. Although most patients with lung cancer are stratified according to a single oncogenic driver, cancers harbouring identical activating genetic mutations show large variations in their responses to the same targeted therapy. The biology underlying this(More)
The EGFR T790M mutation has been identified in tumors from lung cancer patients that eventually develop resistance to erlotinib. In this study, we generated a mouse model with doxycycline-inducible expression of a mutant EGFR containing both L858R, an erlotinib-sensitizing mutation, and the T790M resistance mutation (EGFR TL). Expression of EGFR TL led to(More)
MRI offers a tremendous armamentarium of different methods that can be employed in brain tumor characterization. MR diffusion imaging has become a widely accepted method to probe for the presence of fluid pools and molecular tissue water mobility. For most clinical applications of diffusion imaging, it is assumed that the diffusion signal vs diffusion(More)
Continuous arterial spin labeling (CASL) was used to obtain an index of cerebral blood flow (ICBF) in the normal mouse brain and in an orthotopic mouse model of human U87 high-grade glioma at 8.5 T. Under the assumption of a constant tissue:blood partition coefficient for water in different tissues, the mean ICBF (n = 14) was found to be 50 +/- 9(More)
Few data are available on the molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in chickens and ducks in China. In this study, 2579 faecal samples from 46 chicken farms and eight Pekin duck farms in 21 prefectures in Henan Province were examined. The overall infection rate of Cryptosporidium was 10.6% (163/1542) in layer chickens (10 out of 17 farms), 3.4%(More)
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a familial tumor disorder for which there is no effective medical therapy. Disease-causing mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 gene lead to increased mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase activity in the conserved mTOR signaling pathway, which regulates nutrient uptake, cell growth, and protein translation. The normal(More)
The 'two-hit' model is a widely accepted genetic mechanism for progressive cyst formation in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. We have previously shown that adult inactivation of Pkd1 using the Mx1Cre(+) allele causes a late onset of focal cystic disease. An explanation for the delayed appearance of cysts is the requirement for an additional(More)
Targeting active angiogenesis, which is a major hallmark of malignant gliomas, is a potential therapeutic approach. For effective inhibition of tumor-induced neovascularization, antiangiogenic compounds have to be delivered in sufficient quantities over a sustained period of time. The short biological half-life of many antiangiogenic inhibitors and the(More)
A unique characteristic of neural stem cells is their capacity to track glioma cells that have migrated away from the main tumor mass into the normal brain parenchyma. PEX, a naturally occurring fragment of human metalloproteinase-2, acts as an inhibitor of glioma and endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis. In the present study, we(More)