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The vast majority of brain tumors in adults exhibit glial characteristics. Brain tumors in children are diverse: Many have neuronal characteristics, whereas others have glial features. Here we show that activation of the Gi protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 is critical for the growth of both malignant neuronal and glial tumors. Systemic administration of CXCR4(More)
Targeted therapies have demonstrated efficacy against specific subsets of molecularly defined cancers. Although most patients with lung cancer are stratified according to a single oncogenic driver, cancers harbouring identical activating genetic mutations show large variations in their responses to the same targeted therapy. The biology underlying this(More)
Mutations in the BRAF and KRAS genes occur in approximately 1% to 2% and 20% to 30% of non-small-cell lung cancer patients, respectively, suggesting that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is preferentially activated in lung cancers. Here, we show that lung-specific expression of the BRAF V600E mutant induces the activation of extracellular(More)
Image functional modeling (IFM) has been introduced as a method to simultaneously synthesize imaging and mechanical data with computational models to determine the degree and location of airway constriction in asthma. Using lung imaging provided by hyperpolarized (3)He MRI, we advanced our IFM method to require matching not only to ventilation defect(More)
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES The authors present their initial experience using a 3-T whole-body scanner equipped with a 128-channel coil applied to lung motion assessment. Recent improvements in fast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology have enabled several trials of free-breathing three-dimensional (3D) imaging of the lung. A large number of image(More)
The EGFR T790M mutation has been identified in tumors from lung cancer patients that eventually develop resistance to erlotinib. In this study, we generated a mouse model with doxycycline-inducible expression of a mutant EGFR containing both L858R, an erlotinib-sensitizing mutation, and the T790M resistance mutation (EGFR TL). Expression of EGFR TL led to(More)
The 'two-hit' model is a widely accepted genetic mechanism for progressive cyst formation in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. We have previously shown that adult inactivation of Pkd1 using the Mx1Cre(+) allele causes a late onset of focal cystic disease. An explanation for the delayed appearance of cysts is the requirement for an additional(More)
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a familial tumor disorder for which there is no effective medical therapy. Disease-causing mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 gene lead to increased mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase activity in the conserved mTOR signaling pathway, which regulates nutrient uptake, cell growth, and protein translation. The normal(More)
Assessment of therapy efficacy using animal models of tumorigenic cancer requires the ability to accurately measure changes in tumor volume over the duration of disease course. In order to be meaningful, in vivo tumor volume measurements by non-invasive techniques must correlate with tumor volume measurements from endpoint histological analysis. Tumor(More)
A unique characteristic of neural stem cells is their capacity to track glioma cells that have migrated away from the main tumor mass into the normal brain parenchyma. PEX, a naturally occurring fragment of human metalloproteinase-2, acts as an inhibitor of glioma and endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis. In the present study, we(More)