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The cytokine Spätzle is the ligand for Drosophila Toll, the prototype of an important family of membrane receptors that function in embryonic patterning and innate immunity. A dimeric precursor of Spätzle is processed by an endoprotease to produce a form (C-106) that cross-links Toll receptor ectodomains and establishes signaling. Here we show that before(More)
BACKGROUND The Drosophila Toll pathway takes part in both establishment of the embryonic dorsoventral axis and induction of the innate immune response in adults. Upon activation by the cytokine Spätzle, Toll interacts with the adaptor proteins DmMyD88 and Tube and the kinase Pelle and triggers degradation of the inhibitor Cactus, thus allowing the nuclear(More)
BACKGROUND Depletion of B lymphocytes is associated with suppression of inflammatory activity in multiple sclerosis. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of atacicept, a recombinant fusion protein that suppresses B-cell function and antibody production. METHODS In this placebo-controlled, double-blind, 36-week, phase 2 trial (ATAMS) in Australia,(More)
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