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The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key component of a signaling pathway which integrates inputs from nutrients and growth factors to regulate cell growth. Recent studies demonstrated that mice harboring an ethylnitrosourea-induced mutation in the gene encoding mTOR die at embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5). However, others have shown that the treatment(More)
Transcription factor TFIID is a multiprotein complex composed of the TATA binding protein and its associated factors, and is required for accurate and regulated initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II. The subunit composition of this factor is highly conserved from yeast to mammals. X-ray crystallography and biochemical experiments have shown that(More)
The RNA polymerase II transcription factor TFIID comprises the TATA binding protein (TBP) and a set of TBP-associated factors (TAF(II)s). TFIID has been extensively characterized for yeast, Drosophila, and humans, demonstrating a high degree of conservation of both the amino acid sequences of the constituent TAF(II)s and overall molecular organization. In(More)
It has been previously proposed that the transcription complexes TFIID and SAGA comprise a histone octamer-like substructure formed from a heterotetramer of H4-like human hTAF(II)80 (or its Drosophila melanogaster dTAF(II)60 and yeast [Saccharomyces cerevisiae] yTAF(II)60 homologues) and H3-like hTAF(II)31 (dTAF(II)40 and yTAF(II)17) along with two(More)
The crystal structure is presented of a complex formed by the interacting domains from two subunits of the general transcription factor TFIID, the human TATA binding protein-associated factors hTAF4 (hTAF(II)135) and hTAF12 (hTAF(II)20). In agreement with predictions, hTAF12 forms a histone fold that is very similar to that of histone H2B, yet unexpected(More)
We show that the yeast TFIID (yTFIID) component yTAF(II)47 contains a histone fold domain (HFD) with homology to that previously described for hTAF(II)135. Complementation in vivo indicates that the yTAF(II)47 HFD is necessary and sufficient for vegetative growth. Mutation of highly conserved residues in the alpha1 helix of the yTAF(II)47 HFD results in a(More)
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of cell growth that associates with raptor and rictor to form the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2, respectively. Raptor is required for oxidative muscle integrity, whereas rictor is dispensable. In this study, we show that muscle-specific inactivation of mTOR leads to severe myopathy, resulting in(More)
Using the human basal transcription factors TFIID and TFIIH as examples, we show that pairwise coexpression of polypeptides in Escherichia coli can be used as a tool for the identification of specifically interacting subunits within multiprotein complexes. We find that coexpression of appropriate combinations generally leads to an increase in the solubility(More)
Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of cell growth, proliferation, survival and metabolism, as part of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2. While partial inhibition of mTORC1 using rapamycin was shown to be cardioprotective, genetic studies in mouse models revealed that mTOR is essential for embryonic heart development and cardiac(More)
Interleukin 15 (IL-15) controls both the homeostasis and the peripheral activation of natural killer (NK) cells. The molecular basis for this duality of action remains unknown. Here we found that the metabolic checkpoint kinase mTOR was activated and boosted bioenergetic metabolism after exposure of NK cells to high concentrations of IL-15, whereas low(More)