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Understanding soybean (Glycine max) domestication and improvement at a genetic level is important to inform future efforts to further improve a crop that provides the world's main source of oilseed. We detect 230 selective sweeps and 162 selected copy number variants by analysis of 302 resequenced wild, landrace and improved soybean accessions at >11×(More)
Alternative splicing (AS) is common in higher eukaryotes and plays an important role in gene posttranscriptional regulation. It has been suggested that AS varies dramatically among species, tissues, and duplicated gene families of different sizes. However, the genomic forces that govern AS variation remain poorly understood. Here, through genome-wide(More)
a Laboratory of Crystallography, Department of Materials ETH Zurich, HCI G 515, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 10, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland b Geology Department, Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow, Russia c Institute for Research on Earth Evolution, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 2-15 Natsushima-cho, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa 237-0061, Japan(More)
We report a novel phase of carbon possessing a monoclinic C2/m structure (8 atoms/cell) identified using an ab initio evolutionary structural search. This polymorph, which we call M-carbon, is related to the (2x1) reconstruction of the (111) surface of diamond and can also be viewed as a distorted (through sliding and buckling of the sheets) form of(More)
We reported a developed methodology to design superhard materials for given chemical systems under external conditions (here, pressure). The new approach is based on the CALYPSO algorithm and requires only the chemical compositions to predict the hardness vs. energy map, from which the energetically preferable superhard structures are readily accessible. In(More)
Boron is an element of fascinating chemical complexity. Controversies have shrouded this element since its discovery was announced in 1808: the new 'element' turned out to be a compound containing less than 60-70% of boron, and it was not until 1909 that 99% pure boron was obtained. And although we now know of at least 16 polymorphs, the stable phase of(More)
Under pressure, metals exhibit increasingly shorter interatomic distances. Intuitively, this response is expected to be accompanied by an increase in the widths of the valence and conduction bands and hence a more pronounced free-electron-like behaviour. But at the densities that can now be achieved experimentally, compression can be so substantial that(More)
Rupestonic acid was purified for the first time by high-speed counter-current chromatography from a dichloromethane extract of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Artemisia rupestris L. The separation was performed in two steps with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (6:4:3.5:6.5, v/v) with 0.5% acetic acid in(More)
We have developed a method for crystal structure prediction from “scratch” through particle-swarm optimization PSO algorithm within the evolutionary scheme. PSO technique is different with the genetic algorithm and has apparently avoided the use of evolution operators e.g., crossover and mutation . The approach is based on an efficient global minimization(More)
Cubic boron nitride (cBN) is a well known superhard material that has a wide range of industrial applications. Nanostructuring of cBN is an effective way to improve its hardness by virtue of the Hall-Petch effect--the tendency for hardness to increase with decreasing grain size. Polycrystalline cBN materials are often synthesized by using the martensitic(More)