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Pseudomonas syringae relies on type III secretion system to deliver effector proteins into the host cell for parasitism. Type III genes are induced in planta, but host factors affecting the induction are poorly understood. Here we report on the identification of an Arabidopsis mutant, att1 (for aberrant induction of type three genes), that greatly enhances(More)
The type III secretion system (TTSS) is a specialized protein secretion machinery used by numerous gram-negative bacterial pathogens of animals and plants to deliver effector proteins directly into the host cells. In plant-pathogenic bacteria, genes encoding the TTSS were discovered as hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) genes, because mutation(More)
Organisms are continuously exposed to a myriad of environmental stresses. Central to an organism's survival is the ability to mount a robust transcriptional response to the imposed stress. An emerging mechanism of transcriptional control involves dynamic changes in chromatin structure. Alterations in chromatin structure are brought about by a number of(More)
Soil phosphorus (P) deficiency is one of the major limiting factors to crop production throughout the world. It is an important strategy to breed varieties with improved P-deficiency tolerance for sustainable agriculture. The objective of this study was to map QTLs for P-deficiency tolerance in wheat, and develop molecular marker assisted selection in(More)
The X chromosome-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD) locus, which encodes the gp91phox subunit of the phagocyte respiratory-burst oxidase cytochrome b, was disrupted by homologous recombination in the PLB-985 human myeloid cell line to develop an in vitro model of X-CGD. Superoxide formation was absent in targeted cells after differentiation to(More)
Plastid-derived signals are known to coordinate expression of nuclear genes encoding plastid-localized proteins in a process termed retrograde signaling. To date, the identity of retrograde-signaling molecules has remained elusive. Here, we show that methylerythritol cyclodiphosphate (MEcPP), a precursor of isoprenoids produced by the plastidial(More)
Fatty acid structure affects cellular activities through changes in membrane lipid composition and the generation of a diversity of bioactive derivatives. Eicosapolyenoic acids are released into plants upon infection by oomycete pathogens, suggesting they may elicit plant defenses. We exploited transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants (designated EP)(More)
The objectives of this study were to test the feasibility of introducing barley hva1 gene, a LEA3 member, into perennial grass species using the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation technique and to determine whether heterologous expression of hva1 would alleviate water-deficit injury in grass species. Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera var.(More)
A dual-marker combination, manA-gfp, comprising 2 independent expression cassettes of genes encoding an Escherichia coli phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) and a synthetic green fluorescent protein (GFP), was incorporated into the binary vector pPZP201. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transfer was used to introduce the manA-gfp into the mature-seed derived(More)
Pseudomonas syringae bacteria utilize the type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into host cells. The T3SS and T3 effector genes (together called the T3 genes hereafter) are repressed in nutrient-rich medium but rapidly induced after the bacteria are transferred into minimal medium or infiltrated into plants. The induction of the T3(More)