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The problem of <i>idle listening</i> is one of the most significant sources of energy consumption in wireless sensor nodes, and many techniques have been proposed based on <i>duty cycling</i> to reduce this cost. In this paper, we present a new <i>asynchronous</i> duty cycle MAC protocol, called <i>Receiver-Initiated MAC</i> (<i>RI-MAC</i>), that uses(More)
Duty cycling is a widely used mechanism in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) to reduce energy consumption due to idle listening, but this mechanism also introduces additional latency in packet delivery. Several schemes have been proposed to mitigate this latency, but they are mainly optimized for light traffic loads. A WSN, however, could often experience(More)
The use of <i>asynchronous</i> duty-cycling in wireless sensor network MAC protocols is common, since it can greatly reduce energy consumption and requires no clock synchronization. However, existing systems using asynchronous duty-cycling do not efficiently support broadcast-based communication that may be used, for example, in route discovery or in(More)
Medium access control (MAC) protocols for wireless sensor networks face many challenges, including energy-efficient operation and robust support for varying traffic loads, in spite of effects such as wireless interference or even possible wireless jamming attacks. This paper presents the design and evaluation of the <i>EM-MAC (Efficient Multichannel(More)
This paper presents PW-MAC (Predictive-Wakeup MAC), a new energy-efficient MAC protocol based on asynchronous duty cycling. In PW-MAC, nodes each wake up to receive at randomized, asynchronous times. PW-MAC minimizes sensor node energy consumption by enabling senders to predict receiver wakeup times; to enable accurate predictions, PW-MAC introduces an(More)
Two new prenylated flavonoids, sinoflavonoids A-B, were isolated from the dried fruits of Sinopodophyllum emodi by silica gel column chromatography (SGCC) and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The 95% ethanol extract was partitioned with petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol in water, respectively. The ethyl acetate(More)
A series of combretastatin A-4 analogs derived from the ATP competitive, VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, SU5416 were synthesized. The cytotoxic effects of the analogs were evaluated against PC-3 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cell lines, as well as their abilities to inhibit tubulin polymerization. Results are compared to those of compound 1, our lead(More)
The allatostatin receptor (AlstR)/ligand inactivation system enables potent regulation of neuronal circuit activity. To examine how different cell types participate in memory formation, we have used this system through Cre-directed, cell-type specific expression in mouse hippocampal CA1 in vivo and examined functional effects of inactivation of excitatory(More)
We developed and applied a Cre-dependent, genetically modified rabies-based tracing system to map direct synaptic connections to specific CA1 neuron types in the mouse hippocampus. We found common inputs to excitatory and inhibitory CA1 neurons from CA3, CA2, the entorhinal cortex (EC), the medial septum (MS), and, unexpectedly, the subiculum. Excitatory(More)
CONTEXT Psoralen, an active ingredient from Fructus Psoraleae (FP), is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to treat bone diseases. However, the effect of psoralen on cartilage is unknown. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of psoralen on chondrocytes isolated from rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS Chondrocytes were treated with different(More)