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CHOP is a non-ER localized transcription factor that is induced by a variety of adverse physiological conditions including ER stress. Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER activates an unfolded protein response pathway that targets both ER resident chaperones (e.g. BiP) and CHOP. Hence, it is unclear if CHOP induction during ER stress occurs through(More)
Fine particulate matter (PM₂.₅) is not a criteria pollutant in China, and few studies were conducted in the country to investigate the health impact of PM₂.₅. In this study, we did a time-stratified case-crossover analysis to examine the association between PM₂.₅ and daily mortality in Shenyang, an industrial center in northeast China. Daily mortality, air(More)
The mammalian unfolded protein response (UPR) includes two major branches: one(s) specific to ER stress (Ire1/XBP-1 and ATF6-dependent), and one(s) shared by other cellular stresses (PERK/eIF-2alpha phosphorylation-dependent). Here, we demonstrate that the ER-localized protein Herp represents a second target, in addition to CHOP, that is dually regulated by(More)
We present a discriminative learning method to improve the consistency of translations in phrase-based Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) systems. Our method is inspired by Translation Memory (TM) systems which are widely used by human translators in industrial settings. We constrain the translation of an input sentence using the most similar(More)
A Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) system generates an n-best list of candidate translations for each sentence. A model error occurs if the most probable translation (1-best) generated by the SMT decoder is not the most accurate as measured by its similarity to the human reference transla-tion(s) (an oracle). In this paper we investigate the parametric(More)
Techniques for measuring very low tunneling currents are critical for studying gate dielectric properties in MOSFETs, especially charge-loss mechanisms in nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices. Being able to measure stress-induced leakage current (SILC) at the floating gate operating conditions can be used to accurately extract the retention lifetime of floating(More)
Nearly all resident proteins of the organelles along the secretory pathway, as well as proteins that are expressed at the cell surface or secreted from the cell, are first co-translationally translocated into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as unfolded polypeptide chains. Immediately after entering the ER, they are often modified with N-linked(More)
Transient protein synthesis inhibition is an important protective mechanism used by cells during various stress conditions including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This response centers on the phosphorylation state of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)-2 alpha, which is induced by kinases like protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK) and GCN2 to suppress(More)