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HIV-1 and related viruses require co-receptors, in addition to CD4, to infect target cells. The chemokine receptor CCR-5 (ref.1) was recently demonstrated to be a co-receptor for macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) HIV-1 strains, and the orphan receptor LESTR (also called fusin) allows infection by strains adapted for growth in transformed T-cell lines (T-tropic(More)
Macrophage/microglia cells are the principal targets for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the central nervous system (CNS). Prototype HIV-1 isolates from the CNS are macrophage (M)-tropic, non-syncytia-inducing (NSI), and use CCR5 for entry (R5 strains), but whether syncytia-inducing (SI) CXCR4-using X4 strains might play a role in(More)
Here, we show that the beta-chemokine receptor CKR-5 serves as a cofactor for M-tropic HIV viruses. Expression of CKR-5 with CD4 enables nonpermissive cells to form syncytia with cells expressing M-tropic, but not T-tropic, HIV-1 env proteins. Expression of CKR-5 and CD4 enables entry of a M-tropic, but not a T-tropic, virus strain. A dual-tropic primary(More)
Fungi are important pathogens but challenging to enumerate using next-generation sequencing because of low absolute abundance in many samples and high levels of fungal DNA from contaminating sources. Here, we analyze fungal lineages present in the human airway using an improved method for contamination filtering. We use DNA quantification data, which are(More)
Macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) HIV-1 strains use the beta-chemokine receptor CCR5, but not CCR2b, as a cofactor for membrane fusion and infection, while the dual-tropic strain 89.6 uses both. CCR5/2b chimeras and mutants were used to map regions of CCR5 important for cofactor function and specificity. M-tropic strains required either the amino-terminal domain(More)
Macrophages are major targets for infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In addition to their role as productive viral reservoirs, inappropriate activation of infected and uninfected macrophages appears to contribute to pathogenesis. HIV-1 infection requires initial interactions between the viral envelope surface glycoprotein gp120, the(More)
from the delta ccr5 mutation. patient-derived and prototype isolates resulting immunodeficiency virus: resistance to macrophage-tropic strains of human macrophages and lymphocytes by Role of CCR5 in infection of primary
To identify intrinsic defects in lupus, we studied short-term, CD4(+) T cell lines that were established from 16 lupus patients (active or inactive) and 15 normal subjects by stimulating once with anti-CD3, anti-CD28, and IL-2. After resting, the pure CD4(+) T cells were exposed to anergy-inducing stimulation with plate-bound anti-CD3 mAb in the absence of(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) uses the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 for entry. Macrophages and microglia (M/M) are the principal productively infected brain cells in HIV encephalopathy (HIVE), and neuronal injury is believed to result both from direct effects of viral proteins and indirect effects mediated by macrophage activation and(More)
The scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein gp340 functions as part of the host innate immune defense system at mucosal surfaces. In the genital tract, its expression by cervical and vaginal epithelial cells promotes HIV trans-infection and may play a role in sexual transmission. Gp340 is an alternatively spliced product of the deleted in malignant brain(More)