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Short tandem repeats (STRs) have a wide range of applications, including medical genetics, forensics, and genetic genealogy. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) has the potential to profile hundreds of thousands of STR loci. However, mainstream bioinformatics pipelines are inadequate for the task. These pipelines treat STR mapping as gapped alignment, which(More)
Short tandem repeats (STRs) are mutation-prone loci that span nearly 1% of the human genome. Previous studies have estimated the mutation rates of highly polymorphic STRs by using capillary electrophoresis and pedigree-based designs. Although this work has provided insights into the mutational dynamics of highly mutable STRs, the mutation rates of most(More)
microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles are often characteristic of specific cell types. The mouse mammary epithelial cell line, Comma-Dbeta, contains a population of self-renewing progenitor cells that can reconstitute the mammary gland. We purified this population and determined its miRNA signature. Several microRNAs, including miR-205 and miR-22, are highly(More)
Next-generation sequencing is limited to short read lengths and by high error rates. We systematically analyzed sources of noise in the Illumina Genome Analyzer that contribute to these high error rates and developed a base caller, Alta-Cyclic, that uses machine learning to compensate for noise factors. Alta-Cyclic substantially improved the number of(More)
Sharing sequencing data sets without identifiers has become a common practice in genomics. Here, we report that surnames can be recovered from personal genomes by profiling short tandem repeats on the Y chromosome (Y-STRs) and querying recreational genetic genealogy databases. We show that a combination of a surname with other types of metadata, such as age(More)
Drosophila Argonaute-1 and Argonaute-2 differ in function and small RNA content. AGO2 binds to siRNAs, whereas AGO1 is almost exclusively occupied by microRNAs. MicroRNA duplexes are intrinsically asymmetric, with one strand, the miR strand, preferentially entering AGO1 to recognize and regulate the expression of target mRNAs. The other strand, miR*, has(More)
Patients with Joubert syndrome 2 (JBTS2) suffer from a neurological disease manifested by psychomotor retardation, hypotonia, ataxia, nystagmus, and oculomotor apraxia and variably associated with dysmorphism, as well as retinal and renal involvement. Brain MRI results show cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and additional anomalies of the fourth ventricle,(More)
Next-generation sequencers have sufficient power to analyze simultaneously DNAs from many different specimens, a practice known as multiplexing. Such schemes rely on the ability to associate each sequence read with the specimen from which it was derived. The current practice of appending molecular barcodes prior to pooling is practical for parallel analysis(More)
Screening large populations for carriers of known or de novo rare single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is required both in Targeting induced local lesions in genomes (TILLING) experiments in plants and in screening of human populations. We previously suggested an approach that combines the mathematical field of compressed sensing with next-generation(More)
Collecting cases for case-control genetic association studies can be time-consuming and expensive. In some situations (such as studies of late-onset or rapidly lethal diseases), it may be more practical to identify family members of cases. In randomly ascertained cohorts, replacing cases with their first-degree relatives enables studies of diseases that are(More)