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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Their suggested role includes the disruption of the blood-brain barrier, immune cell transmigration into the central nervous system, and myelin degradation. The present study characterized the mRNA level of a wide spectrum of MMPs and tissue inhibitors(More)
Reciprocal interactions between T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) within the 'Immunological-Synapse' (IS) govern immune cell autoreactivity in multiple sclerosis (MS). The present study examined the expression of a range of co-stimulatory molecules: CD40, CD54, CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR, on the cell-surface of CD14(+) peripheral blood monocytes (PBM)(More)
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and vitamin B12 deficiency share common inflammatory and neurodegenerative pathophysiological characteristics. Due to similarities in the clinical presentations and MRI findings, the differential diagnosis between vitamin B12 deficiency and MS may be difficult. Additionally, low or decreased levels of vitamin B12 have been(More)
The need to ensure an accurate diagnosis and proper treatment for multiple sclerosis patients, considering the various clinical and immunopathological subtypes of the disease, requires the identification of biomarkers that measure disease activity and predict the course of disease development in individual patients. Moreover, the identification of effective(More)
Recent findings have implicated the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), while in vivo interferon (IFN)-beta treatment was demonstrated to suppress MMPs. In the present study, the effects mediated by IFN-gamma and IFN-beta on the mRNA and protein expression of MMP-2, its physiological activator,(More)
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