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Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system. Inactivation of synaptic glutamate is handled by the glutamate transporter GLT1 (also known as EAAT2; refs 1, 2), the physiologically dominant astroglial protein. In spite of its critical importance in normal and abnormal synaptic activity, no practical pharmaceutical can(More)
There are more than 50 class I MHC (MHCI) molecules in the mouse genome, some of which are now known to be expressed in neurons; however, the role of classical MHCI molecules in synaptic plasticity is unknown. We report that the classical MHCI molecules, H2-K(b) and H2-D(b), are co-expressed by Purkinje cells (PCs). In the cerebellum of mice deficient for(More)
Glutamatergic projections from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to nucleus accumbens (NAc) contribute to cocaine relapse. Here we show that silent synapse-based remodeling of the two major mPFC-to-NAc projections differentially regulated the progressive increase in cue-induced cocaine seeking after withdrawal (incubation of cocaine craving).(More)
Glutamate transporters regulate excitatory neurotransmission and prevent glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity in the CNS. To better study the cellular and temporal dynamics of the expression of these transporters, we generated bacterial artificial chromosome promoter Discosoma red [glutamate-aspartate transporter (GLAST)] and green fluorescent protein(More)
The extracellular levels of excitatory amino acids are kept low by the action of the glutamate transporters. Glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) and glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) are the most abundant subtypes and are essential for the functioning of the mammalian CNS, but the contribution of the EAAC1 subtype in the clearance of synaptic glutamate(More)
In rat models of drug relapse and craving, cue-induced cocaine seeking progressively increases after withdrawal from the drug. This 'incubation of cocaine craving' is partially mediated by time-dependent adaptations at glutamatergic synapses in nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, the circuit-level adaptations mediating this plasticity remain elusive. We(More)
Despite sleep-loss-induced cognitive deficits, little is known about the cellular adaptations that occur with sleep loss. We used brain slices obtained from mice that were sleep deprived for 8h to examine the electrophysiological effects of sleep deprivation (SD). We employed a modified pedestal (flowerpot) over water method for SD that eliminated rapid eye(More)
Studies over the past decade have enunciated silent synapses as prominent cellular substrates for synaptic plasticity in the developing brain. However, little is known about whether silent synapses can be generated postdevelopmentally. Here, we demonstrate that highly salient in vivo experience, such as exposure to cocaine, generates silent synapses in the(More)
Clearance of extracellular glutamate is essential for limiting the activity of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) at excitatory synapses; however, the relative contribution of transporters found in neuronal and glial membranes to this uptake is poorly understood. Hippocampal interneurons located at the oriens-alveus border express mGluR1alpha, a(More)
KChIPs coassemble with pore-forming Kv4 alpha subunits to form a native complex in the brain and heart and regulate the expression and gating properties of Kv4 K(+) channels, but the mechanisms underlying these processes are unknown. Here we report a co-crystal structure of the complex of human Kv4.3 N-terminus and KChIP1 at a 3.2-A resolution. The(More)