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In this paper, an analytical and accurate into out (I2O) human body path loss (PL) model at 2.45 GHz is derived based on a 3D heterogeneous human body model under safety constraints. The bit error rate (BER) performance for this channel using multiple efficient modulation schemes is investigated and the link budget is analyzed based on a predetermined(More)
Implant wireless body area networks (WBANs) are becoming increasingly significant for numerous applications in the healthcare and medical sectors. Here an in-body communication model is proposed, based on a 1 mm resolution mesh kneeling position inhomogeneous 30-year male body model in the 400 MHz medical implant communication service (MICS) band. Firstly,(More)
In this paper, we aim to minimize in-body sensor node energy consumption and to prolong the network lifetime by utilizing a relay strategy based on our proposed flexible quality of service (QoS) radio frequency communication module and advanced In-to-out body path loss (PL) model. A selection algorithm is derived and investigated in which the relay nodes(More)
The performance of six different shapes of pulses is compared for Packet Collision (PC) and Standard Gaussian Approximation (SGA) communication systems, based on the requirements of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) emission mask. The shapes are a second derivative sinusoid Gaussian pulse, a second order Gaussian pulse and the first four orders of(More)
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