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Retrieval of size distributions from multispectral optical depth measurements requires solution of an illposed inverse problem. The illposedness causes problems such as solution ambiguity. Size distribution retrieval becomes more complicated in the presence of nonspherical particles and/or refractive index errors. A new retrieval algorithm is first(More)
Aerosols alter cloud density and the radiative balance of the atmosphere. This leads to changes in cloud microphysics and atmospheric stability, which can either suppress or foster the development of clouds and precipitation. The net effect is largely unknown, but depends on meteorological conditions and aerosol properties. Here, we examine the long-term(More)
[1] Aerosol indirect effects are the most uncertain of the climate forcing mechanisms that have operated through the industrial period. Several studies have demonstrated modifications of cloud properties due to aerosols and corresponding changes in shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes under specific cloud conditions, but some recent studies have(More)
A new one-dimensional radiative equilibrium model is built to analytically evaluate the vertical profile of the Earth's atmospheric radiation entropy flux under the assumption that atmospheric longwave radiation emission behaves as a greybody and shortwave radiation as a diluted blackbody. Results show that both the atmospheric shortwave and net longwave(More)
and broaden the droplet size distribution compared with clean clouds that have fewer droplets and less competition. According to equations (1) and (2), an increase in ᒎ acts to negate the effect of increased N on effective radius and cloud reflectivity. Because this effect has been largely neglected in estimates of the indirect aerosol effect, cooling by an(More)
Next-generation scientific applications feature complex workflows comprised of many computing modules with intricate inter-module dependencies. Supporting such scientific workflows in wide-area networks especially Grids and optimizing their performance are crucial to the success of collaborative scientific discovery. We develop a Scientific Workflow(More)
Next-generation computational sciences feature large-scale workflows of many computing modules that must be deployed and executed in distributed network environments. With limited computing resources, it is often unavoidable to map multiple workflow modules to the same computer node with possible concurrent module execution, whose scheduling may(More)
—A generalized two-way coupled-line power divider with extended ports for dual band is proposed in this paper. The power divider is composed of two section coupled-lines, one conventional transmission line, and an isolation resistor, and employs extension of a transmission line or coupled-line at each port. The design equations are obtained based on(More)
A 60 h case study of continental boundary layer cumulus clouds is examined using two large-eddy simulation (LES) models. The case is based on observations obtained during the RACORO Campaign (Routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility (AAF) Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative Observations) at the ARM Climate(More)