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A long-standing but fundamental question in lightning studies concerns how lightning is initiated inside storms, given the absence of physical conductors. The issue has revolved around the question of whether the discharges are initiated solely by conventional dielectric breakdown or involve relativistic runaway electron processes. Here we report(More)
The viscoelastic properties of the cell wall of the tropic hardwood Carapa procera are investigated by means of nanoindentation tests. Three types of nanoindentation tests are undertaken: creep, continuous stiffness measurement (CSM) and nanoscale dynamic mechanical analysis (Nano-DMA), corresponding to the increased loading rate and so the response of wood(More)
The effect of individual and combined talc and glass fibers (GFs) on mechanical and thermal expansion performance of the filled high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites was studied. Several published models were adapted to fit the measured tensile modulus and strength of various composite systems. It was shown that the use of silane-modified GFs had a(More)
Aerosol particles can affect cloud microphysical properties by serving as ice nuclei (IN). Large uncertainties exist in the ice nucleation parameterizations (INPs) used in current climate models. In this Part II paper, to examine the sensitivity of the model predictions to different heterogeneous INPs, WRF-CAM5 simulation using the INP of Niemand et al.(More)
Water is the most ubiquitous substance on earth, and is essential to sustain all known forms of life. However, despite centuries of research, a coherent picture of the unusual phase behavior of water is so far lacking. The most promising theory under scrutiny relies on the hypothetical existence of a liquid-liquid phase transition and an associated(More)
Large gradual solar energetic particle events (LGSEPEs, ≥10pfu in the >10MeV channel as measured by GOES) are closely associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The intensity-time profile of a LGSEPE reveals important information on the moving directions of a CME or an in-terplanetary CME (ICME). This paper analyzes the moving directions of ICMEs, using(More)
In this paper, we first examine the relationship between the relative particle motions of fluids and solids and the seismic signal received when compressional waves propagate through saturated porous materials. We use a rotated-staggered-grid finite difference modeling scheme to simulate elastic wave phenomena in a digitized 2D structural model obtained(More)
There has been considerable interest in spin-orbit torques for the purpose of manipulating the magnetization of ferromagnetic elements for spintronic technologies. Spin-orbit torques are derived from spin currents created from charge currents in materials with significant spin-orbit coupling that propagate into an adjacent ferromagnetic material. A key(More)
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