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The ultimate proof of our understanding of natural or technological systems is reflected in our ability to control them. Although control theory offers mathematical tools for steering engineered and natural systems towards a desired state, a framework to control complex self-organized systems is lacking. Here we develop analytical tools to study the(More)
A quantitative description of a complex system is inherently limited by our ability to estimate the system's internal state from experimentally accessible outputs. Although the simultaneous measurement of all internal variables, like all metabolite concentrations in a cell, offers a complete description of a system's state, in practice experimental access(More)
How disease-associated mutations impair protein activities in the context of biological networks remains mostly undetermined. Although a few renowned alleles are well characterized, functional information is missing for over 100,000 disease-associated variants. Here we functionally profile several thousand missense mutations across a spectrum of Mendelian(More)
* Recent studies have made important advances in identifying sensor or driver nodes, through which we can observe or control a complex system. But the observational uncertainty induced by measurement noise and the energy required for control continue to be significant challenges in practical applications. Here we show that the variability of control energy(More)
Controlling complex networked systems to desired states is a key research goal in contemporary science. Despite recent advances in studying the impact of network topology on controllability, a comprehensive understanding of the synergistic effect of network topology and individual dynamics on controllability is still lacking. Here we offer a theoretical(More)
Network motifs are overrepresented interconnection patterns found in real-world networks. What functional advantages may they offer for building complex systems? We show that most network motifs emerge from interconnections patterns that best exploit the intrinsic stability characteristics of individual nodes. This feature is observed at different scales in(More)
Our ability to control complex systems is a fundamental challenge of contemporary science. Recently introduced tools to identify the driver nodes, nodes through which we can achieve full control, predict the existence of multiple control configurations, prompting us to classify each node in a network based on their role in control. Accordingly a node is(More)
We introduce the concept of control centrality to quantify the ability of a single node to control a directed weighted network. We calculate the distribution of control centrality for several real networks and find that it is mainly determined by the network's degree distribution. We show that in a directed network without loops the control centrality of a(More)
A dynamical system is controllable if by imposing appropriate external signals on a subset of its nodes, it can be driven from any initial state to any desired state in finite time. Here we study the impact of various network characteristics on the minimal number of driver nodes required to control a network. We find that clustering and modularity have no(More)