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The need for a planned response to a deliberate introduction of smallpox has recently become urgent. We constructed a stochastic simulator of the spread of smallpox in structured communities to compare the effectiveness of mass vaccination versus targeted vaccination of close contacts of cases. Mass vaccination before smallpox introduction or immediately(More)
Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 (pandemic H1N1) is spreading throughout the planet. It has become the dominant strain in the Southern Hemisphere, where the influenza season has now ended. Here, on the basis of reported case clusters in the United States, we estimated the household secondary attack rate for pandemic H1N1 to be 27.3% [95% confidence interval(More)
BACKGROUND Interstitial white matter neurons (IWMNs) may reflect immature neurons that migrate tangentially to the neocortex from the ganglionic eminence to form cortical interneurons. Alterations of interneuron markers have been detected in gray matter of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia, and IWMNs are also reported to be altered in(More)
The aim of this study was to compare the mycorrhizal responsiveness among old and recent Chinese maize genotypes (released from 1950s to 2008) in low- and high-Olsen-P soils and to identify parameters that would indicate the relationships between the mycorrhizal responsiveness and the functional traits related to P uptake of maize. A greenhouse factorial(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Taiji training on knee extensor strength and force control in older individuals. Twenty-six healthy older adults (71.9 +/- 1.8 years) participated in the study. Sixteen of the older adults (70.2 +/- 1.8 years) underwent Taiji training for 20 weeks (experimental group), whereas the other 10 (74.6 +/-(More)
This study examines the process whereby functional disability amplifies depressive symptoms through decreasing perceived social support and psychological resources. The study analyzed two waves of panel data (1986 to 1992) of a large sample of older adults from the National Institutes of Aging Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the(More)
We determined the presence of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence in human AQP4-transfected cells, and evaluated the diagnostic and prognostic relevance of AQP4 antibodies in 210 Chinese patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), high-risk NMO (HR-NMO), classic multiple sclerosis (MS), and other neurologic diseases. Patients were(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) was characterized with widespread demyelination and axonal loss of central nervous system (CNS). Fibrinogen (fibrin) deposition was considered as one of the pathogenesis of MS. Therefore, we explored the effects of fibrinogen depleting agent batroxobin in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice model. Our study showed(More)
Debate remains on whether hypercholesterolemia is associated with cognitive impairment. Hence, we investigated whether poorly controlled cholesterol impairs functional connectivity among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Resting-state functional connectivity infers to an interregional cooperation characterized by synchronous and low-frequency(More)
Prophylaxis of contacts of infectious cases such as household members and treatment of infectious cases are methods to prevent spread of infectious diseases. We develop a method based on maximum likelihood to estimate the efficacy of such interventions and the transmission probabilities. We consider both the design with prospective follow-up of close(More)