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The need for a planned response to a deliberate introduction of smallpox has recently become urgent. We constructed a stochastic simulator of the spread of smallpox in structured communities to compare the effectiveness of mass vaccination versus targeted vaccination of close contacts of cases. Mass vaccination before smallpox introduction or immediately(More)
Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 (pandemic H1N1) is spreading throughout the planet. It has become the dominant strain in the Southern Hemisphere, where the influenza season has now ended. Here, on the basis of reported case clusters in the United States, we estimated the household secondary attack rate for pandemic H1N1 to be 27.3% [95% confidence interval(More)
We determined the presence of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence in human AQP4-transfected cells, and evaluated the diagnostic and prognostic relevance of AQP4 antibodies in 210 Chinese patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), high-risk NMO (HR-NMO), classic multiple sclerosis (MS), and other neurologic diseases. Patients were(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) was characterized with widespread demyelination and axonal loss of central nervous system (CNS). Fibrinogen (fibrin) deposition was considered as one of the pathogenesis of MS. Therefore, we explored the effects of fibrinogen depleting agent batroxobin in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice model. Our study showed(More)
Prophylaxis of contacts of infectious cases such as household members and treatment of infectious cases are methods to prevent spread of infectious diseases. We develop a method based on maximum likelihood to estimate the efficacy of such interventions and the transmission probabilities. We consider both the design with prospective follow-up of close(More)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) subtype H5N1 has caused family case clusters, mostly in Southeast Asia, that could be due to human-to-human transmission. Should this virus, or another zoonotic influenza virus, gain the ability of sustained human-to-human transmission, an influenza pandemic could result. We used statistical methods to test whether(More)
The outbreak of human infections with an emerging avian influenza A (H7N9) virus occurred in China in early 2013. It remains unknown what and how the underlying risk factors were involved in the bird-to-human cross-species transmission. To illustrate the dynamics of viral spread, we created a thematic map displaying the distribution of affected counties and(More)
This paper studies task allocation in cluster-based Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) using negotiation model. We study both the negotiation reasoning model and the negotiation protocol for task allocation to achieve energy efficiency while balancing nodes energy. Reasoning model determines the offer generate scheme and gives control over negotiation process. A(More)
First discovered in rural areas of middle-eastern China in 2009, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne zoonosis affecting hundreds of cases reported in China each year. Using the national surveillance data from 2010 to 2013, we conducted this retrospective epidemiological study and risk assessment of SFTS in China. We(More)
BACKGROUND Gonorrhea is a major sexually transmitted disease (STD) in many countries worldwide. The emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance has complicated efforts to control and treat this disease. We report the first study of the evolutionary processes acting on transmission dynamics of a resistant gonococcal population from Shanghai, China. We compare(More)