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The voltage-gated sodium channel Na(V)1.7 is preferentially expressed in peripheral somatic and visceral sensory neurons, olfactory sensory neurons and sympathetic ganglion neurons. Na(V)1.7 accumulates at nerve fibre endings and amplifies small subthreshold depolarizations, poising it to act as a threshold channel that regulates excitability. Genetic and(More)
The fourth generation wireless communication systems have been deployed or are soon to be deployed in many countries. However, with an explosion of wireless mobile devices and services, there are still some challenges that cannot be accommodated even by 4G, such as the spectrum crisis and high energy consumption. Wireless system designers have been facing(More)
Routing in multi-hop cognitive radio networks (CRN) should be spectrum-aware. In this paper, two adaptive reinforcement learning based spectrum-aware routing protocols are introduced. Q-Learning and Dual Reinforcement Learning are applied respectively for them. The cognitive nodes store a table of Q values that estimate the numbers of available channels on(More)
A vast diversity of salient cues is sensed by numerous classes of primary sensory neurons, defined by specific neuropeptides, ion channels, or cytoskeletal proteins. Recent evidence has demonstrated a correlation between the expression of some of these molecular markers and transmission of signals related to distinct sensory modalities (eg, heat, cold,(More)
Cognitive impairments have been proposed as a core feature of schizophrenia. Studies have shown that chronic or subchronic treatment with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists could induce cognitive deficits that resemble the symptoms of schizophrenia, yet few studies have investigated the effects of repeated NMDA blockade during adolescence on cognition.(More)
Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) has been identified as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, and dysregulation of NRG1 and its ErbB receptors is implicated in the pathophysiology of the disorder. The present study examined the protein expression levels of NRG1beta, ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4 in the rat prefrontal cortex and hippocampus following a 4-wk administration of(More)