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The origin of the action potential in the cochlea has been a long-standing puzzle. Because voltage-dependent Na+ (Nav) channels are essential for action potential generation, we investigated the detailed distribution of Nav1.6 and Nav1.2 in the cochlear ganglion, cochlear nerve, and organ of Corti, including the type I and type II ganglion cells. In most(More)
Many of the cognitive deficits of normal ageing (forgetfulness, distractibility, inflexibility and impaired executive functions) involve prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction. The PFC guides behaviour and thought using working memory, which are essential functions in the information age. Many PFC neurons hold information in working memory through excitatory(More)
Paranodal junctions of myelinated nerve fibers are important for saltatory conduction and function as paracellular and membrane protein diffusion barriers flanking nodes of Ranvier. The formation of these specialized axoglial contacts depends on the presence of three cell adhesion molecules: neurofascin 155 on the glial membrane and a complex of Caspr and(More)
High densities of ion channels at axon initial segments (AISs) and nodes of Ranvier are required for initiation, propagation, and modulation of action potentials in axons. The organization of these membrane domains depends on a specialized cytoskeleton consisting of two submembranous cytoskeletal and scaffolding proteins, ankyrinG (ankG) and betaIV(More)
The peritoneal cavity (PerC) is a unique compartment within which a variety of immune cells reside, and from which macrophages (MØ) are commonly drawn for functional studies. Here we define two MØ subsets that coexist in PerC in adult mice. One, provisionally called the large peritoneal MØ (LPM), contains approximately 90% of the PerC MØ in unstimulated(More)
High densities of sodium channels at nodes of Ranvier permit action potential conduction and depend on betaIV spectrins, a family of scaffolding proteins linked to the cortical actin cytoskeleton. To investigate the molecular organization of nodes, we analyzed qv(3J)"quivering" mice, whose betaIV spectrins have a truncated proline-rich "specific" domain(More)
Prefrontal cortical (PFC) working memory functions depend on pyramidal cell networks that interconnect on dendritic spines. Recent research has revealed that the strength of PFC network connections can be rapidly and reversibly increased or decreased by molecular signaling events within slender, elongated spines: a process we term Dynamic Network(More)
Neurons in the primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) generate persistent firing in the absence of sensory stimulation, the foundation of mental representation. Persistent firing arises from recurrent excitation within a network of pyramidal Delay cells. Here, we examined glutamate receptor influences underlying persistent firing in primate dlPFC(More)
Axoglial interactions underlie the clustering of ion channels and of cell adhesion molecules, regulate gene expression, and control cell survival. We report that Cnp1-null mice, lacking expression of the myelin protein cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (CNP), have disrupted axoglial interactions in the central nervous system (CNS). Nodal sodium channels(More)
The cognitive function of the highly evolved dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) is greatly influenced by arousal state, and is gravely afflicted in disorders such as schizophrenia, where there are genetic insults in α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs). A recent behavioral study indicates that ACh depletion from dlPFC markedly impairs(More)