Learn More
Posttranslational modifications of histone N-terminal tails impact chromatin structure and gene transcription. While the extent of histone acetylation is determined by both acetyltransferases and deacetylases, it has been unclear whether histone methylation is also regulated by enzymes with opposing activities. Here, we provide evidence that LSD1(More)
Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) regulate chromatin states and epigenetic inheritance. Here, we show that the lincRNA HOTAIR serves as a scaffold for at least two distinct histone modification complexes. A 5' domain of HOTAIR binds polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), whereas a 3' domain of HOTAIR binds the LSD1/CoREST/REST complex. The ability to(More)
In the last ten years, the importance of chromatin modifications in many aspects of biology has become apparent. Several families of enzymes that modify histones have been identified, the majority of which are conserved throughout evolution. The enormous interest in this field has resulted in a very rapid rate of discovery of new enzymes, but this in turn(More)
Histone methylation regulates chromatin structure, transcription, and epigenetic state of the cell. Histone methylation is dynamically regulated by histone methylases and demethylases such as LSD1 and JHDM1, which mediate demethylation of di- and monomethylated histones. It has been unclear whether demethylases exist that reverse lysine trimethylation. We(More)
DNA methylation at the 5 position of cytosine (5mC) in the mammalian genome is a key epigenetic event critical for various cellular processes. The ten-eleven translocation (Tet) family of 5mC-hydroxylases, which convert 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), offers a way for dynamic regulation of DNA methylation. Here we report that Tet1 binds to unmodified(More)
Sperm and eggs carry distinctive epigenetic modifications that are adjusted by reprogramming after fertilization. The paternal genome in a zygote undergoes active DNA demethylation before the first mitosis. The biological significance and mechanisms of this paternal epigenome remodelling have remained unclear. Here we report that, within mouse zygotes,(More)
The recent discovery of a large number of histone demethylases suggests a central role for these enzymes in regulating histone methylation dynamics. Histone H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) has been linked to polycomb-group-protein-mediated suppression of Hox genes and animal body patterning, X-chromosome inactivation and possibly maintenance of embryonic(More)
The transcriptional co-repressor CtBP (C-terminal binding protein) is implicated in tumorigenesis because it is targeted by the adenovirus E1A protein during oncogenic transformation. Genetic studies have also identified a crucial function for CtBP in animal development. CtBP is recruited to DNA by transcription factors that contain a PXDLS motif, but the(More)
Gene transcription is critically influenced by chromatin structure and the modification status of histone tails. Methylation of lysine residues in histone tails is dynamically regulated by the opposing activities of histone methyltransferases and histone demethylases. Here we show that JARID1C/SMCX, a JmjC-domain-containing protein implicated in X-linked(More)
Histone methylation regulates chromatin structure and transcription. The recently identified histone demethylase lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is chemically restricted to demethylation of only mono- and di- but not trimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3). We show that the X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) gene SMCX (JARID1C), which encodes a(More)