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Age-related declines in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function may contribute to anemia, poor response to vaccination, and tumorigenesis. Here, we show that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity is increased in HSCs from old mice compared to those from young mice. mTOR activation through conditional deletion of Tsc1 in the HSCs of young mice(More)
Molecular targeting of cancer stem cells (CSCs) has therapeutic potential for efficient treatment of cancer, although relatively few specific targets have been identified so far. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) was recently shown to regulate the tumorigenic capacity of glioma stem cells under hypoxic conditions. Surprisingly, we found that, under normoxia,(More)
Central tolerance is established through negative selection of self-reactive thymocytes and the induction of T-regulatory cells (T(R)s). The role of thymic dendritic cells (TDCs) in these processes has not been clearly determined. In this study, we demonstrate that in vivo, TDCs not only play a role in negative selection but in the induction of T(R)s. TDCs(More)
The tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is a key regulator of cellular metabolism. We used conditional deletion of Tsc1 to address how quiescence is associated with the function of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). We demonstrate that Tsc1 deletion in the HSCs drives them from quiescence into rapid cycling, with(More)
The X-linked Foxp3 is a member of the forkhead/winged helix transcription factor family. Germline mutations cause lethal autoimmune diseases in males. Serendipitously, we observed that female mice heterozygous for the "scurfin" mutation of the Foxp3 gene (Foxp3(sf/+)) developed cancer at a high rate. The majority of the cancers were mammary carcinomas in(More)
Thellungiella salsuginea, a close relative of Arabidopsis, represents an extremophile model for abiotic stress tolerance studies. We present the draft sequence of the T. salsuginea genome, assembled based on ~134-fold coverage to seven chromosomes with a coding capacity of at least 28,457 genes. This genome provides resources and evidence about the nature(More)
BACKGROUND B1 B cells are believed to be a unique lineage with a distinct developmental pathway, function and activation requirement. How this lineage is genetically determined remained largely obscure. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Using the Siglecg-deficient mice with a knockin of green-fluorescent protein encoding sequence, we show here that, although(More)
S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2) is a component of the E3 ubiquitin ligase SKP1-Cul1-Fbox complex. Overexpression of SKP2 results in cell cycle dysregulation and carcinogenesis; however, the genetic lesions that cause this upregulation are poorly understood. We recently demonstrated that forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) is an X-linked breast cancer(More)
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by either translational inhibition or mRNA degradation. MicroRNAs play pivotal roles in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses, including TLR-triggered inflammatory response. Here we reported that the expression of microRNA-223 (miR-223) was significantly(More)
Dogma that the regulatory T cell (Treg) prevents catastrophic autoimmunity throughout the lifespan relies on the assumption that the FoxP3 locus is transcribed exclusively in Treg. To test the assumption, we used the Rag2(-/-) and the Rag2(-/-) mice with the Scurfy (sf) mutation (FoxP3(sf/Y) or FoxP3(sf/sf)) to evaluate FoxP3 expression outside of the(More)