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Little is known about the biochemical environment in phagosomes harboring an infectious agent. To assess the state of this organelle we captured the transcriptional responses of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in macrophages from wild-type and nitric oxide (NO) synthase 2-deficient mice before and after immunologic activation. The intraphagosomal(More)
Attention mechanism advanced state-ofthe-art neural machine translation (NMT) by jointly learning to align and translate. However, attention-based NMT ignores past alignment information, which often leads to over-translation and undertranslation. In response to this problem, we maintain a coverage vector to keep track of the attention history. The coverage(More)
OBJECTIVE Brain-computer interface (BCI) provides a mean of communication for the patients that are severely disabled by neuromuscular diseases. The performance of the classical P300 speller, however, declines noticeably in the gaze fixation condition. The speller paradigm presented in this paper aims to release the gaze dependency at the cost of an extra(More)
Without discourse connectives, classifying implicit discourse relations is a challenging task and a bottleneck for building a practical discourse parser. Previous research usually makes use of one kind of discourse framework such as PDTB or RST to improve the classification performance on discourse relations. Actually, under different discourse annotation(More)
We have taken the first steps towards a complete reconstruction of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis regulatory network based on ChIP-Seq and combined this reconstruction with system-wide profiling of messenger RNAs, proteins, metabolites and lipids during hypoxia and re-aeration. Adaptations to hypoxia are thought to have a prominent role in M. tuberculosis(More)
We present an innovative MAC protocol (Q-MAC) that minimizes the energy consumption in multi-hop wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and provides Quality of Service (QoS) by differentiating network services based on priority levels. The priority levels reflect application priority and the state of system resources, namely residual energy and queue occupancies.(More)
Previous research on relation classification has verified the effectiveness of using dependency shortest paths or subtrees. In this paper, we further explore how to make full use of the combination of these dependency information. We first propose a new structure, termed augmented dependency path (ADP), which is composed of the shortest dependency path(More)
The cell-to-cell transmission of viral resistance is a potential mechanism for amplifying the interferon-induced antiviral response. In this study, we report that interferon-α (IFN-α) induced the transfer of resistance to hepatitis B virus (HBV) from nonpermissive liver nonparenchymal cells (LNPCs) to permissive hepatocytes via exosomes. Exosomes from(More)
Chemotherapeutic options to treat tuberculosis are severely restricted by the intrinsic resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to the majority of clinically applied antibiotics. Such resistance is partially provided by the low permeability of their unique cell envelope. Here we describe a complementary system that coordinates resistance to drugs that have(More)