Yang-In Yoon

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BACKGROUND Opioids produce analgesia by direct effects as well as by activating neural pathways that release nonopioid transmitters. This study tested whether systematically administered opioids activate descending spinal noradrenergic and cholinergic pathways. METHODS The effect of intravenous morphine on cerebrospinal fluid and dorsal horn(More)
Intrathecal injection of neostigmine enhances antinociception from clonidine while it counteracts clonidine-induced hypotension. This study further examined the pharmacology of neostigmine-clonidine interactions in the spinal cord and focused on the roles of muscarinic receptor subtypes and local nitric oxide synthesis. Spinal neostigmine counteracted(More)
Glial cells play a critical role in morphine tolerance, resulting from repeated administration of morphine. Both the development and the expression of tolerance are suppressed by the analgesic lamotrigine. This study investigated the relationship between the ability of lamotrigine to maintain the antinociceptive effect of morphine during tolerance(More)
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