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High-throughput experimental technologies often identify dozens to hundreds of genes related to, or changed in, a biological or pathological process. From these genes one wants to identify biological pathways that may be involved and diseases that may be implicated. Here, we report a web server, KOBAS 2.0, which annotates an input set of genes with putative(More)
Deep sequencing now provides detailed snapshots of ribosome occupancy on mRNAs. We leverage these data to parameterize a computational model of translation, keeping track of every ribosome, tRNA, and mRNA molecule in a yeast cell. We determine the parameter regimes in which fast initiation or high codon bias in a transgene increases protein yield and infer(More)
The desert-dwelling sandfish (Scincus scincus) moves within dry sand, a material that displays solid and fluidlike behavior. High-speed x-ray imaging shows that below the surface, the lizard no longer uses limbs for propulsion but generates thrust to overcome drag by propagating an undulatory traveling wave down the body. Although viscous hydrodynamics can(More)
We integrate biological experiment, empirical theory, numerical simulation and a physical model to reveal principles of undulatory locomotion in granular media. High-speed X-ray imaging of the sandfish lizard, Scincus scincus, in 3 mm glass particles shows that it swims within the medium without using its limbs by propagating a single-period travelling(More)
The main transmission route of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is mother to child transmission and contributes significantly to chronic HBV infection. Even though immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and hepatitis B vaccine is administrated to neonates whose mothers are hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive, about 10% of the neonates(More)
The large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea (L. crocea) is one of the most economically important marine fish in China and East Asian countries. It also exhibits peculiar behavioral and physiological characteristics, especially sensitive to various environmental stresses, such as hypoxia and air exposure. These traits may render L. crocea a good model for(More)
A multifunctional copolymer-anticancer conjugate chitosan-graft-polyethyleneimine-candesartan (CPC) containing low molecular weight chitosan (CS) backbone and polyethyleneimine (PEI) arms with candesartan (CD) conjugated via an amide bond was fabricated as a targeted co-delivery nanovector of drug and gene for potential cancer therapy. Here, CD was utilized(More)
B7-H3 is a member of the B7-family of co-stimulatory molecules, which has been shown to be broadly expressed in various tumor tissues, and which plays an important role in adaptive immune responses. The role of B7-H3 in osteosarcoma, however, remains unknown. In this study we used immunohistochemistry to analyze B7-H3 expression in 61 primary osteosarcoma(More)
An important question in molecular evolution is whether an amino acid that occurs at a given position makes an independent contribution to fitness, or whether its effect depends on the state of other loci in the organism's genome, a phenomenon known as epistasis. In a recent letter to Nature, Breen et al. (2012) argued that epistasis must be"pervasive(More)
The sandfish lizard (Scincus scincus) swims within granular media (sand) using axial body undulations to propel itself without the use of limbs. In previous work we predicted average swimming speed by developing a numerical simulation that incorporated experimentally measured biological kinematics into a multibody sandfish model. The model was coupled to an(More)