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This paper presents a novel adaptive synthetic (ADASYN) sampling approach for learning from imbalanced data sets. The essential idea of ADASYN is to use a weighted distribution for different minority class examples according to their level of difficulty in learning, where more synthetic data is generated for minority class examples that are harder to learn(More)
Brassinosteroid and gibberellin promote many similar developmental responses in plants; however, their relationship remains unclear. Here we show that BR and GA act interdependently through a direct interaction between the BR-activated BZR1 and GA-inactivated DELLA transcription regulators. GA promotion of cell elongation required BR signalling, whereas BR(More)
Recognizing smiles is of much importance for detecting happy moods. Gabor features are conventionally widely applied to facial expression recognition, but the number of Gabor features is usually too large. We proposed to use Pyramid Histogram of Oriented Gradients (PHOG) as the features extracted for smile recognition in this paper. The comparisons between(More)
Acidity levels greatly affect the taste and flavor of fruit, and consequently its market value. In mature apple fruit, malic acid is the predominant organic acid. Several studies have confirmed that the major quantitative trait locus Ma largely controls the variation of fruit acidity levels. The Ma locus has recently been defined in a region of 150 kb that(More)
Formaldehyde, an economically important chemical, is classified as a human carcinogen that causes nasopharyngeal cancer and probably leukemia. As China is the largest producer and consumer of formaldehyde in the world, the Chinese population is potentially at increased risk for cancer and other associated health effects. In this paper we review formaldehyde(More)
Roots and leaves of healthy plants host taxonomically structured bacterial assemblies, and members of these communities contribute to plant growth and health. We established Arabidopsis leaf- and root-derived microbiota culture collections representing the majority of bacterial species that are reproducibly detectable by culture-independent community(More)
Active electrosense is used by some fish for the sensing of nearby objects by means of the perturbations the objects induce in a self-generated electric field. As with echolocation (sensing via perturbations of an emitted acoustic field) active elec-trosense is particularly useful in environments where darkness, clutter or turbidity makes vision(More)
‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ is associated with the Zebra Chip (ZC) disorder of potatoes. A panel of eight simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was developed and used to genetically characterize ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ strains obtained from ZC-affected potato plants in the United States and Mexico. The multilocus SSR markers in this study(More)
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that can pose a serious threat to human health by causing toxoplasmosis. There are no drugs that target the chronic cyst stage of this infection; therefore, development of an effective vaccine would be an important advance. Aspartic proteases play essential roles in the T. gondii lifecycle. The(More)