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This paper presents a novel adaptive synthetic (ADASYN) sampling approach for learning from imbalanced data sets. The essential idea of ADASYN is to use a weighted distribution for different minority class examples according to their level of difficulty in learning, where more synthetic data is generated for minority class examples that are harder to learn(More)
Brassinosteroid and gibberellin promote many similar developmental responses in plants; however, their relationship remains unclear. Here we show that BR and GA act interdependently through a direct interaction between the BR-activated BZR1 and GA-inactivated DELLA transcription regulators. GA promotion of cell elongation required BR signalling, whereas BR(More)
Recognizing smiles is of much importance for detecting happy moods. Gabor features are conventionally widely applied to facial expression recognition, but the number of Gabor features is usually too large. We proposed to use Pyramid Histogram of Oriented Gradients (PHOG) as the features extracted for smile recognition in this paper. The comparisons between(More)
We studied the source, concentration, spatial distribution and health risk of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban soils of Beijing. The total mass concentration of 16 PAHs ranged from 93 to 13,141 μg kg(-1) with a mean of 1228 μg kg(-1). The contour map of soil PAH concentrations showed that the industrial zone, the historical Hutong(More)
Roots and leaves of healthy plants host taxonomically structured bacterial assemblies, and members of these communities contribute to plant growth and health. We established Arabidopsis leaf- and root-derived microbiota culture collections representing the majority of bacterial species that are reproducibly detectable by culture-independent community(More)
PURPOSE This study evaluated the relative validity of different consumer and research activity monitors during semistructured periods of sedentary activity, aerobic exercise, and resistance exercise. METHODS Fifty-two (28 male and 24 female) participants age 18-65 yr performed 20 min of self-selected sedentary activity, 25 min of aerobic exercise, and 25(More)
Defensins are small (3-5 kDa) cysteine-rich cationic proteins found in both vertebrates and invertebrates constituting the front line of host innate immunity. Despite intensive research, bactericidal and cytotoxic mechanisms of defensins are still largely unknown. Moreover, we recently demonstrated that small peptides derived from defensins are even more(More)
Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive citrus diseases in the world. The disease is associated with the presence of a fastidious, phloem-limited α- proteobacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', 'Ca. Liberibacter africanus' or 'Ca. Liberibacter americanus'. HLB-associated Liberibacters have spread to North America and South America in(More)
‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ is associated with the Zebra Chip (ZC) disorder of potatoes. A panel of eight simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was developed and used to genetically characterize ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ strains obtained from ZC-affected potato plants in the United States and Mexico. The multilocus SSR markers in this study(More)
In this paper, we focus on single-index models for longitudinal data. We propose a procedure to estimate the single-index component and the unknown link function based on the combination of the penalized splines and quadratic inference functions. It is shown that the proposed estimation method has good asymptotic properties. We also evaluate the finite(More)