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Creative metaphor is a phenomenon that stretches and bends the conventions of semantic description, often to humorous and poetic extremes. The computational mod-eling of metaphor thus requires a knowledge representation that is just as stretch-able and semantically accommodating. We present here a flexible knowledge representation for metaphor(More)
Examples of figurative language can range from the explicit and the obvious to the implicit and downright enigmatic. Some simpler forms, like simile, often wear their meanings on their sleeve, while more challenging forms, like metaphor, can make cryptic allusions more akin to those of riddles or crossword puzzles. In this paper we argue that because the(More)
Irony is an effective but challenging mode of communication that allows a speaker to express sentiment-rich viewpoints with concision, sharpness and humour. Creative irony is especially common in online documents that express subjective and deeply-felt opinions, and thus represents a significant obstacle to the accurate analysis of sentiment in web texts.(More)
Concept taxonomies offer a powerful means for organizing knowledge, but this organization must allow for many overlapping and fine-grained perspectives if a general-purpose taxonomy is to reflect concepts as they are actually employed and reasoned about in everyday usage. We present here a means of bootstrapping finely-discriminating tax-onomies from a(More)
Large lexical resources, such as corpora and databases of Web ngrams, are a rich source of prefabricated phrases that can be reused in many different contexts. However , one must be careful in how these resources are used, and noted writers such as George Orwell have argued that the use of canned phrases encourages sloppy thinking and results in poor(More)
An effective speaker can use metaphor to communicate a wealth of propositions and affective attitudes with a single But as such, an effective metaphor requires effective communication, which in turn requires that the speaker has a clear idea of the content to be communicated, and an equally clear understanding of which conceptual vehicles best communicate(More)