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Creative metaphor is a phenomenon that stretches and bends the conventions of semantic description, often to humorous and poetic extremes. The computational mod-eling of metaphor thus requires a knowledge representation that is just as stretch-able and semantically accommodating. We present here a flexible knowledge representation for metaphor(More)
Simile is widely viewed as a less sophisticated conceptual device than metaphor, not least because similes are explicitly marked and are frequently more obvious about the meanings they carry. Nonetheless, this lack of sophistication makes simile an ideal basis for acquiring the category-specific knowledge required to understand metaphor. In this paper we(More)
Examples of figurative language can range from the explicit and the obvious to the implicit and downright enigmatic. Some simpler forms, like simile, often wear their meanings on their sleeve, while more challenging forms, like metaphor, can make cryptic allusions more akin to those of riddles or crossword puzzles. In this paper we argue that because the(More)
Irony is an effective but challenging mode of communication that allows a speaker to express sentiment-rich viewpoints with concision, sharpness and humour. Creative irony is especially common in online documents that express subjective and deeply-felt opinions, and thus represents a significant obstacle to the accurate analysis of sentiment in web texts.(More)
Concept taxonomies offer a powerful means for organizing knowledge, but this organization must allow for many overlapping and fine-grained perspectives if a general-purpose taxonomy is to reflect concepts as they are actually employed and reasoned about in everyday usage. We present here a means of bootstrapping finely-discriminating tax-onomies from a(More)
Language provides a wealth of stock images and formulaic expressions to speakers who wish to describe a topic in figurative terms. Speakers can also craft their own similes and metaphors, and frequently do, but their most creative efforts run the risk of being misunderstood. Ironic comparisons, in particular, can mistakenly impart the very opposite of what(More)