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During mitosis, a ras-related GTPase (Tem1) binds GTP and activates a signal transduction pathway to allow mitotic exit. During most of the cell cycle, Tem1 function is antagonized by a GTPase-activating protein complex, Bfa1/Bub2. How the Bfa1/Bub2 complex is regulated is not well understood. We find that Polo/Cdc5 kinase acts upstream of Bfa1/Bub2 in the(More)
In S. cerevisiae cells undergoing anaphase, a ras-related GTPase, Tem1, is located on the spindle pole body that enters the daughter cell and activates a signal transduction pathway, MEN, to allow mitotic exit. MEN activation must be reversed after mitotic exit to reset the cell cycle in G1. We find that daughter cells activate an Antagonist of MEN pathway(More)
At the end of the cell cycle, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity is inactivated to allow mitotic exit [1]. A protein phosphatase, Cdc14, plays a key role during mitotic exit in budding yeast by activating the Cdh1 component of the anaphase-promoting complex to degrade cyclin B (Clb) and inducing the CDK inhibitor Sic1 to inactivate Cdk1 [2]. To prevent(More)
The kinetochore is a protein complex that assembles on centromeric DNA to mediate chromosome-microtubule interaction. Most eukaryotic cells form the spindle and establish kinetochore-microtubule interaction during mitosis, but budding yeast cells finish these processes in S-phase. It has long been noticed that the S-phase spindle in budding yeast is shorter(More)
In all eukaryotic cells, DNA is packaged into multiple chromosomes that are linked to microtubules through a large protein complex called a kinetochore. Previous data show that the kinetochores are clustered together during most of the cell cycle, but the mechanism and the biological significance of kinetochore clustering are unknown. As a kinetochore(More)
In budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, kinetochores are attached by microtubules during most of the cell cycle, but the duplication of centromeric DNA disassembles kinetochores, which results in a brief dissociation of chromosomes from microtubules. Kinetochore assembly is delayed in the presence of hydroxyurea, a DNA synthesis inhibitor, presumably due(More)
Understanding the basis for intracellular motion is critical as the field moves toward a deeper understanding of the relation between Brownian forces, molecular crowding, and anisotropic (or isotropic) energetic forcing. Effective forces and other parameters used to summarize molecular motion change over time in live cells due to latent state changes, e.g.,(More)
Ubiquilin proteins contain a ubiquitin-like domain (UBL) and ubiquitin-associated domain(s) that interact with the proteasome and ubiquitinated substrates, respectively. Previous work established the link between ubiquilin mutations and neurodegenerative diseases, but the function of ubiquilin proteins remains elusive. Here we used a misfolded huntingtin(More)
The attachment of sister kinetochores by microtubules emanating from opposite spindle poles establishes chromosome bipolar attachment, which generates tension on chromosomes and is essential for sister-chromatid segregation. Syntelic attachment occurs when both sister kinetochores are attached by microtubules from the same spindle pole and this attachment(More)
Because cohesion prevents sister-chromatid separation and spindle elongation, cohesion dissolution may trigger these two events simultaneously. However, the relatively normal spindle elongation kinetics in yeast cohesin mutants indicates an additional mechanism for the temporal control of spindle elongation. Here we show evidence indicating that S-phase CDK(More)