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Cell transplantation is a potential strategy for treating blindness caused by the loss of photoreceptors. Although transplanted rod-precursor cells are able to migrate into the adult retina and differentiate to acquire the specialized morphological features of mature photoreceptor cells, the fundamental question remains whether transplantation of(More)
Despite different aetiologies, age-related macular degeneration and most inherited retinal disorders culminate in the same final common pathway, the loss of photoreceptors. There are few treatments and none reverse the loss of vision. Photoreceptor replacement by transplantation is proposed as a broad treatment strategy applicable to all degenerations.(More)
Uveitis is a sight threatening inflammatory disorder that remains a significant cause of visual loss. We investigated lentiviral gene delivery of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) or interleukin (IL)-10 to ameliorate murine endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). An human immunodeficiency virus-1-based vector containing the mIL-1ra or mIL-10 cDNA(More)
Retroviral and lentiviral vector integration into host-cell chromosomes carries with it a finite chance of causing insertional mutagenesis. This risk has been highlighted by the induction of malignancy in mouse models, and development of lymphoproliferative disease in three individuals with severe combined immunodeficiency-X1 (refs. 2,3). Therefore, a key(More)
To date adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are the only gene therapy vectors that have been shown to efficiently transduce photoreceptor cells and have thus become the most commonly used vector for ocular transduction. Various AAV serotypes have been evaluated in the eye, the first of which was AAV2, which is able to transduce photoreceptors, retinal(More)
BACKGROUND Hypoxia plays a key role in ischaemic and neovascular disorders of the retina. Cellular responses to oxygen are mediated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) that are stabilised in hypoxia and induce the expression of a diverse range of genes. The purpose of this study was to define the cellular specificities of HIF-1alpha and(More)
Irreversible blindness caused by loss of photoreceptors may be amenable to cell therapy. We previously demonstrated retinal repair and restoration of vision through transplantation of photoreceptor precursors obtained from postnatal retinas into visually impaired adult mice. Considerable progress has been made in differentiating embryonic stem cells (ESCs)(More)
While AAV- and lentivirus-mediated gene replacement therapy can produce structural and functional improvements in various animal models of inherited retinal degeneration, this approach often has very limited effects on the rate of photoreceptor cell loss. Neurotrophic factors such as ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and glial cell line-derived(More)
Stem cell therapy presents an opportunity to replace photoreceptors that are lost as a result of inherited and age-related degenerative disease. We have previously shown that murine postmitotic rod photoreceptor precursor cells, identified by expression of the rod-specific transcription factor Nrl, are able to migrate into and integrate within the adult(More)
PURPOSE Drusen, which are defined clinically as yellowish white spots in the outer retina, are cardinal features of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Ccl2-knockout (Ccl2(-/-)) mice have been reported to develop drusen and phenotypic features similar to AMD, including an increased susceptibility to choroidal neovascularization (CNV). This study was(More)