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OBJECTIVE Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a form of inherited mental retardation in humans that results from expansion of a CGG repeat in the FMR1 gene. Interaction between estrogen receptor (ER) and lipid raft caveolae is critical for the estrogen signaling. Here, we tested the hypothesis that impaired ER-caveolae coupling contributes to the mental retardation(More)
Ligands of the translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO) have demonstrated rapid anxiolytic efficacy in stress responses and stress-related disorders. This protein is involved in the synthesis of endogenous neurosteroids including pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and progesterone. These neurosteroids promote γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated neurotransmission in(More)
G-protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30)/G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor is a novel estrogen membrane receptor that localizes to the cell membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. GPR30 is widely distributed and has numerous physiological functions in the central nervous system. We found that GPR30 is highly expressed in the basolateral amygdala (BLA).(More)
Large-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels (BKCa) are highly expressed in the lateral amygdala (LA), which is closely involved in assigning stress disorders, but data on their role in the neuronal circuits of stress disorders are limited. In the present study, a significant reduction in BKCa channel expression in the amygdala of mice accompanied(More)
17-β-estradiol (E2) is a steroid hormone involved in neuroprotection against excitotoxicity and other forms of brain injury. Through genomic and nongenomic mechanisms, E2 modulates neuronal excitability and signal transmission by regulating NMDA and non-NMDA receptors. However, the mechanisms and identity of the receptors involved remain unclear, even(More)
Neurons in the insular cortex are activated by acute and chronic pain, and inhibition of neuronal activity in the insular cortex has analgesic effects. We found that in a mouse model in which peripheral nerve injury leads to the development of neuropathic pain, the insular cortex showed changes in synaptic plasticity, which were associated with a long-term(More)
The midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG) is a structure known for its roles in pain transmission and modulation. Noxious stimuli potentiate the glutamate synaptic transmission and enhance glutamate NMDA receptor expression in the PAG. However, little is known about roles of NMDA receptor subunits in the PAG in processing the persistent inflammatory pain. The(More)
AIMS Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) is critical for neural progenitor cell (NPC) migration after ischemia for nerve repair, but how hypoxic induction of SDF-1 is regulated has not been fully addressed. Here, we examined the regulation of SDF-1 hypoxic induction by the transcription factors nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and hypoxic inducible factor 1α(More)
AIMS Dopamine and glutamate receptors are densely expressed in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Active interactions between these receptors contribute to the development of neuropsychiatric diseases, such as drug addiction and relapse. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions remain unclear. METHODS This study established a mouse model(More)
Gentiopicroside is one of the secoiridoid compound isolated from Gentiana lutea. It exhibits analgesic activities in the mice. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a forebrain structure known for its roles in pain transmission and modulation. Painful stimuli potentiate the prefrontal synaptic transmission and induce glutamate NMDA NR2B receptor expression(More)