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Drug use and relapse involve learned associations between drug-associated environmental cues and drug effects. Extinction procedures in the clinic can suppress conditioned responses to drug cues, but the extinguished responses typically reemerge after exposure to the drug itself (reinstatement), the drug-associated environment (renewal), or the passage of(More)
Relapse to drug seeking was studied using a rodent model of reinstatement induced by exposure to drug-related cues. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine/threonine protein kinase that regulates cell growth and survival by controlling translation in response to nutrients and growth factors, has been demonstrated to be involved in neuronal(More)
  • Chun-Mei Xu, Jun Wang, +6 authors Lin Lu
  • Journal of neurochemistry
  • 2009
Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) is a ubiquitous serine/threonine protein kinase involved in a number of signaling pathways. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for GSK-3beta in the synaptic plasticity underlying dopamine-associated behaviors and diseases. Drug sensitization is produced by repeated exposure to the drug and is thought to(More)
During abstinence, memories of drug-associated cues persist for many months, and exposure to these cues often provokes relapse to drug use. The mechanisms underlying the maintenance of these memories are unknown. A constitutively active atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isozyme, protein kinase M ζ (PKMζ), is required for maintenance of spatial memory,(More)
Extinction therapy has been suggested to suppress the conditioned motivational effect of drug cues to prevent relapse. However, extinction forms a new inhibiting memory rather than erasing the original memory trace and drug memories invariably return. Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are a specialized extracellular matrix around interneurons in the brain that have(More)
The mammalian target of rapamycin is an evolutionarily conserved serine-threonine kinase (mTOR), which controls protein synthesis and catabolism in response to environmental cues. This randomized double-blind clinical trial enrolled 60 abstinent heroin addicts and randomly assigned them to three groups: placebo, 2.5 mg and 5 mg rapamycin. The participants(More)
Heroin use has seriously threatened public heath in many countries, but the existing therapies continue to have many limitations. Recently, immunotherapy has shown efficacy in some clinical studies, including vaccines against nicotine and cocaine, but no opioid vaccines have been introduced in clinical studies. The development of a novel opioid antigen(More)
Exposure to cocaine-associated conditioned stimuli elicits craving and increases the probability of cocaine relapse in cocaine users even after extended periods of abstinence. Recent evidence indicates that cocaine seeking can be inhibited by disrupting the reconsolidation of the cocaine cue memories and that basolateral amygdala (BLA) neuronal activity(More)
We recently reported that a conditioned stimulus (CS) memory retrieval-extinction procedure decreases reinstatement of cocaine and heroin seeking in rats and heroin craving in humans. Here we show that non-contingent cocaine or methylphenidate injections (UCS retrieval) 1 h before the extinction sessions decreases cocaine-priming-induced reinstatement,(More)
The intense associative memories that develop between drug-paired contextual cues and rewarding stimuli or the drug withdrawal-associated aversive feeling have been suggested to contribute to the high rate of relapse. Various studies have elucidated the mechanisms underlying the formation and expression of drug-related cue memories, but how this mechanism(More)