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We present a method for high-throughput cytological profiling by microscopy. Our system provides quantitative multidimensional measures of individual cell states over wide ranges of perturbations. We profile dose-dependent phenotypic effects of drugs in human cell culture with a titration-invariant similarity score (TISS). This method successfully(More)
The recently identified type VI secretion system (T6SS) of proteobacteria has been shown to promote pathogenicity, competitive advantage over competing microorganisms, and adaptation to environmental perturbation. By detailed phenotypic characterization of loss-of-function mutants, in silico, in vitro and in vivo analyses, we provide evidence that the(More)
Aging increases susceptibility to infection, in part because thymic involution culminates in reduced naïve T-lymphocyte output. Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are critical to ensure normal maturation of thymocytes and production of peripheral T cells. The forkhead-class transcription factor, encoded by FoxN1, regulates development, differentiation, and(More)
High-content screening studies of mitotic checkpoints are important for identifying cancer targets and developing novel cancer-specific therapies. A crucial step in such a study is to determine the stage of cell cycle. Due to the overwhelming number of cells assayed in a high-content screening experiment and the multiple factors that need to be taken into(More)
BACKGROUND Nonadherence is very common among subjects undergoing pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia and depression. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the ratio of the nonlinear mixed effects pharmacokinetic model predicted concentration to observed drug concentration (ratio of population predicted to observed concentration (Cpred/Cobs) and(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a member of the innate immune system. TLRs detect invading pathogens through the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) recognition and play an essential role in the host defense. TLRs can also sense a large number of endogenous molecules with the damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that are produced under(More)
BACKGROUND Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) was originally identified as the receptor for viral RNA and represents a major host antiviral defense mechanism. TLR3 may also recognize extracellular RNA (exRNA) released from injured tissues under certain stress conditions. However, a role for exRNA and TLR3 in the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemic injury has not(More)
Autophagy is a cellular catabolic process critical for cell viability and homoeostasis. Inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex-1 (mTORC1) activates autophagy. A puzzling observation is that amino acid starvation triggers more rapid autophagy than pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1, although they both block mTORC1 activity with similar(More)
BACKGROUND Since adaptive immunity is thought to be central to immunity against influenza A virus (IAV) pneumonias, preventive strategies have focused primarily on vaccines. However, vaccine efficacy has been variable, in part because of antigenic shift and drift in circulating influenza viruses. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of innate(More)
Accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy and inflammatory responses contributes to secondary brain injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI), and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is considered to involvement of this cascade and plays an important role. The present study was designed to determine the hypothesis that administration of resatorvid (TAK-242), a(More)