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Opiate, cholinergic, glutamatergic and beta-adrenergic neurotransmitters play key roles in learning and memory in humans and animals. Dysfunction of the interactions between these neurotransmitters may induce human diseases. In the present study, the interactions of morphine and acetylcholine (ACh), NMDA, and beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist(More)
In most studies regarding the improving or therapeutical effects induced by enriched environment (EE), EE was performed after the stress treatment or in patients with certain diseases. In the current study, the effects of chronic restraint stress (6h/day) in mice living in an enriched environment or standard environment (SE) were tested. Mice were randomly(More)
There is a close neuroanatomical connection between odor and emotional processing. Olfactory dysfunction is found in various neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, mice take the cyclic nucleotide gated channel 2 mutant gene (Cnga2), which is critical for olfactory sensory neurons to generate odor induced action potentials were used. The(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents based on chitosan derivatives have great potential for diagnosing diseases. However, stable tumor-targeted MRI contrast agents using micelles prepared from high molecular weight chitosan derivatives are seldom reported. In this study, we developed a novel tumor-targeted MRI vehicle via superparamagnetic iron(More)
Morphine can modulate the processes underlying memory in vertebrates. However, studies have shown various modulations by morphine: positive, negative and even neutral. The honeybee is a potential platform for evaluating the effects of drugs, especially addictive drugs, on the nervous system. However, the involvement of morphine in learning and memory in(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been extensively demonstrated to benefit heart failure patients, but the role of underlying heart failure etiology in the outcomes was not consistently proven. This meta-analysis aimed to determine whether efficacy and effectiveness of CRT is affected by underlying heart failure etiology. METHODS AND(More)
Gua Sha is a traditional Chinese folk therapy that employs skin scraping to cause subcutaneous microvascular blood extravasation and bruises. The protocol for bioluminescent optical imaging of HO-1-luciferase transgenic mice reported in this manuscript provides a rapid in vivo assay of the upregulation of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression in(More)
BACKGROUND Effects of beta-blockers on the prognosis of the heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) remain controversial. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the impact of beta-blockers on mortality and hospitalization in the patients with HFpEF. METHODS A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library databases(More)
BACKGROUND Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) have been shown to be effective in patients with heart failure or myocardial infarction complicated by a reduced ejection fraction. However, the role of MRAs in patients with preserved ejection fraction (PEF) remains to be clarified. We aimed to summarize the evidence for the efficacy of MRAs in(More)
Opiates and dopamine (DA) play key roles in learning and memory in humans and animals. Although interactions between these neurotransmitters have been found, their functional roles remain to be fully elucidated, and their dysfunction may contribute to human diseases and addiction. Here we investigated the interactions of morphine and dopaminergic(More)