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Although the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer incorporated the internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) concept, there has been little change in surgical practice patterns due to the low visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes with the traditional injection technique. Meanwhile, as internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLN)(More)
According to axilla sentinel lymph node lymphatic drainage pattern, we hypothesized that internal mammary sentinel lymph node (IM-SLN) receives lymphatic drainage from not only the primary tumor area, but also the entire breast parenchyma. Based on the hypothesis a modified radiotracer injection technique was established and could increase the visualization(More)
With the improvement of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), the proportion of pathological complete response (pCR) in the breast and axillary lymph node (ALN) is increasing. The evaluation of pCR does not include the status of internal mammary lymph node (IMLN). This study is to evaluate the roles of both axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy (ASLNB) and internal(More)
An appropriate receptor-targeted tracer for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) was prepared. We combined the fluorescence tracer (Indocyanine green, ICG) with Rituximab (a chimeric human/murine monoclonal antibody targeting the CD20 antigen on the surface of lymphocyte) directly to produce a new tracer (ICG-Rituximab). When the new tracer drains to the lymph(More)
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