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A critical step during human microRNA maturation is the processing of the primary microRNA transcript by the nuclear RNaseIII enzyme Drosha to generate the approximately 60-nucleotide precursor microRNA hairpin. How Drosha recognizes primary RNA substrates and selects its cleavage sites has remained a mystery, especially given that the known targets for(More)
The biogenesis and function of mature human microRNAs is dependent on the nuclear export of pre-microRNA precursors by Exportin 5 (Exp5). The precursor for the human miR-30 microRNA, which is a 63 nt long RNA hairpin bearing a 2 nt 3' overhang, forms a specific complex with Exp5 and the Ran-GTP cofactor. Here, we have examined the structural requirements(More)
Genomic findings underscore the heterogeneity of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Identification of mutations that predict therapeutic response would be a major advance. We determined the mutationally altered, targetable mitogenic pathways in a large HNSCC cohort. Analysis of whole-exome sequencing data from 151 tumors revealed the(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells derived from hematopoietic progenitor cells and circulating monocytes. To investigate the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) during DC differentiation, maturation, and function, we profiled miRNA expression in human monocytes, immature DCs (imDCs), and mature DCs (mDCs). Stage-specific, differential(More)
Animal cells have recently been shown to express a range of approximately 22 nucleotide noncoding RNAs termed micro RNAs (miRNAs). Here, we show that the human mir-30 miRNA can be excised from irrelevant, endogenously transcribed mRNAs encompassing the predicted 71 nucleotide mir-30 precursor. Expression of the mir-30 miRNA specifically blocked the(More)
We have shown previously that sulforaphane (SFN), a constituent of many edible cruciferous vegetables including broccoli, suppresses growth of prostate cancer cells in culture as well as in vivo by causing apoptosis, but the sequence of events leading to cell death is poorly defined. Using PC-3 and DU145 human prostate cancer cells as a model, we now(More)
Most eukaryotes encode a substantial number of small noncoding RNAs termed micro RNAs (miRNAs). Previously, we have demonstrated that miR-30, a 22-nucleotide human miRNA, can be processed from a longer transcript bearing the proposed miR-30 stem-loop precursor and can translationally inhibit an mRNA-bearing artificial target sites. We also demonstrated that(More)
Preclinical studies have shown that hypomethylating agents reverse platinum resistance in ovarian cancer. In this phase II clinical trial, based upon the results of our phase I dose defining study, we tested the clinical and biologic activity of low-dose decitabine administered before carboplatin in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer patients. Among 17(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously encoded small noncoding RNAs, derived by processing of short RNA hairpins, that can inhibit the translation of mRNAs bearing partially complementary target sequences. In contrast, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which are derived by processing of long double-stranded RNAs and are often of exogenous origin, degrade mRNAs(More)
Aging-related cognitive declines are well documented in humans and animal models. Yet the synaptic and molecular mechanisms responsible for cognitive aging are not well understood. Here we demonstrated age-dependent deficits in long-term synaptic plasticity and loss of dendritic spines in the hippocampus of aged Fisher 344 rats, which were closely(More)