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BACKGROUND Thalamic dysfunction has been found in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), suggesting that the thalamus may be implicated in the etiology of PTSD. However, no studies have explored the functional connectivity between the thalamus and other brain regions during resting-state. The objective of the present study was to investigate(More)
In Drosophila, anatomically discrete dopamine neurons that innervate distinct zones of the mushroom body (MB) assign opposing valence to odors during olfactory learning. Subsets of MB neurons have temporally unique roles in memory processing, but valence-related organization has not been demonstrated. We functionally subdivided the αβ neurons, revealing a(More)
Dopamine is necessary for the aversive olfactory associative memory formation in Drosophila, but its effect on other stages of memory is not known. Herein, we studied the effect of enhanced dopaminergic signaling on aversive olfactory memory retention in flies. We used l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) to elevate dopamine levels: l-DOPA-treated flies(More)
[1] As the most populated region of the world, Asia is a major source of aerosols with potential large impact over vast downstream areas. Papers published in this special section describe the variety of aerosols observed in China and their effects and interactions with the regional climate as part of the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols and their(More)
Little is known about the brain systems that contribute to vulnerability to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Comparison of the resting-state patterns of intrinsic functional synchronization, as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), between groups with and without PTSD following a traumatic event can help identify the neural(More)
Little is known about how spontaneous brain activity during the resting state may be altered in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to traumatized individuals. In the current study, we used a measure of amplitude of low-frequency (0.01-0.08 Hz) fluctuation (ALFF) to investigate the regional baseline brain function of this disorder. Fifty-four(More)
Is there a common structural and functional cortical architecture that can be quantitatively encoded and precisely reproduced across individuals and populations? This question is still largely unanswered due to the vast complexity, variability, and nonlinearity of the cerebral cortex. Here, we hypothesize that the common cortical architecture can be(More)
The brain mechanisms by which animals deal with multiple experiences to predict outcomes are not yet fully understood. We explored the choice strategies that flies use to assess degrees of disadvantage, as well as how flies weigh past and recent experiences to guide decisions. Drosophila were exposed to two conditioning events in a T-maze: an odor paired(More)