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Numerical experiments are conducted to investigate the effects of giant cloud condensation Ž . nuclei CCN on the development of precipitation in mixed-phase convective clouds. The results show that the strongest effects of introducing giant CCN occur when the background concentration of small nuclei is high, as that in continental clouds. Under these(More)
Studies using animal models have shown that depression affects the stability of the microbiota, but the actual structure and composition in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) are not well understood. Here, we analyzed fecal samples from 46 patients with depression (29 active-MDD and 17 responded-MDD) and 30 healthy controls (HCs). High-throughput(More)
It is intuitively obvious that the ability of a cell to repair DNA damage is saturable, either by limitation of enzymatic activities, the time allotted to achieve their function, or both. However, very little is known regarding the mechanisms that establish such a threshold. Here we demonstrate that the CUL4A ubiquitin ligase restricts the cellular repair(More)
We evaluated neoadjuvant ipilimumab in patients with surgically operable regionally advanced melanoma in order to define markers of activity in the blood and tumor as assessed at baseline (before ipilimumab) and early on-treatment. Patients were treated with ipilimumab (10 mg/kg intravenously every 3 weeks ×2 doses) bracketing surgery. Tumor and blood(More)
External genitalia are body appendages specialized for internal fertilization. Their development can be divided into two phases, an early androgen-independent phase and a late androgen-dependent sexual differentiation phase. In the early phase, the embryonic anlage of external genitalia, the genital tubercle (GT), is morphologically identical in both sexes.(More)
Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is an important optically active substance that transports nutrients, heavy metals, and other pollutants from terrestrial to aquatic systems and is used as a measure of water quality. To investigate how the source and composition of CDOM changes in both space and time, we used chemical, spectroscopic, and(More)
The efficiency of gas transport to the free and upper troposphere in convective clouds is investigated in an axisymmetric dynamic cloud model with detailed microphysics. In particular, we examine the sensitivity of gas transport to the treatment of gas uptake by different ice hydrometeors. Two parameters are used to describe this uptake. The gas retention(More)
Genital tubercle (GT) initiation and outgrowth involve coordinated morphogenesis of surface ectoderm, cloacal mesoderm and hindgut endoderm. GT development appears to mirror that of the limb. Although Shh is essential for the development of both appendages, its role in GT development is much less clear than in the limb. Here, by removing Shh at different(More)
BACKGROUND Thalamic dysfunction has been found in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), suggesting that the thalamus may be implicated in the etiology of PTSD. However, no studies have explored the functional connectivity between the thalamus and other brain regions during resting-state. The objective of the present study was to investigate(More)
In Drosophila, anatomically discrete dopamine neurons that innervate distinct zones of the mushroom body (MB) assign opposing valence to odors during olfactory learning. Subsets of MB neurons have temporally unique roles in memory processing, but valence-related organization has not been demonstrated. We functionally subdivided the αβ neurons, revealing a(More)