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A principal question in MAP kinase (MAPK/MPK) cascade signalling is how similar components dictate different specificity in the information-processing machineries from yeast to humans and plants. In Arabidopsis, how MPK3/6 modulates distinct outputs in diverse signal transduction pathways remains elusive. By combining systematic cellular and genetic(More)
Vacuolar autophagy is a major pathway by which eukaryotic cells degrade macromolecules, either to remove damaged or unnecessary proteins, or to produce respiratory substrates and raw materials to survive periods of nutrient deficiency. During autophagy, a double membrane forms around cytoplasmic components to generate an autophagosome, which is transported(More)
Upon encountering oxidative stress, proteins are oxidized extensively by highly reactive and toxic reactive oxidative species, and these damaged, oxidized proteins need to be degraded rapidly and effectively. There are two major proteolytic systems for bulk degradation in eukaryotes, the proteasome and vacuolar autophagy. In mammalian cells, the 20S(More)
Meristems encompass stem/progenitor cells that sustain postembryonic growth of all plant organs. How meristems are activated and sustained by nutrient signalling remains enigmatic in photosynthetic plants. Combining chemical manipulations and chemical genetics at the photoautotrophic transition checkpoint, we reveal that shoot photosynthesis-derived glucose(More)
Autophagy is a protein degradation process in which cells recycle cytoplasmic contents when subjected to environmental stress conditions or during certain stages of development. Upon the induction of autophagy, a double membrane autophagosome forms around cytoplasmic components and delivers them to the vacuole or lysosome for degradation. In plants,(More)
Target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase is an evolutionarily conserved master regulator that integrates energy, nutrients, growth factors, and stress signals to promote survival and growth in all eukaryotes. The reported land plant resistance to rapamycin and the embryo lethality of the Arabidopsis tor mutants have hindered functional dissection of TOR signaling(More)
Autophagy is a process that is thought to occur in all eukaryotes in which cells recycle cytoplasmic contents when subjected to environmental stress conditions or during certain stages of development. Upon induction of autophagy, double membrane-bound structures called autophagosomes engulf portions of the cytoplasm and transfer them to the vacuole or(More)
Antimicrobial peptides are ancient components of the innate immune system and have been isolated from organisms spanning the phylogenetic spectrum. Over an evolutionary time span, these peptides have retained potency, in the face of highly mutable target microorganisms. This fact suggests important coevolutionary influences in the host-pathogen(More)
Recently, learning to rank technology is attracting increasing attention from both academia and industry in the areas of machine learning and information retrieval. A number of algorithms have been proposed to rank documents according to the user-given query using a human-labeled training dataset. A basic assumption behind general learning to rank(More)
Plant cells frequently encounter oxidative stress, leading to oxidative damage and inactivation of proteins. We have recently demonstrated that oxidative stress induces autophagy in Arabidopsis seedlings in an AtATG18a-dependent manner and that RNAi-AtATG18a transgenic lines, which are defective in autophagosome formation, are hypersensitive to reactive(More)