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The ability of antigen receptors to engage self-ligands with varying affinity is crucial for lymphocyte development. To further explore this concept, we generated transgenic mice expressing GFP from the immediate early gene Nr4a1 (Nur77) locus. GFP was up-regulated in lymphocytes by antigen receptor stimulation but not by inflammatory stimuli. In T cells,(More)
BACKGROUND Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the breast, a pathologic entity newly defined in the 2003 World Health Organization classification of tumors, is a rare type of tumor that is not well recognized or studied. The purpose of this first case-controlled study is to reveal the clinicopathologic features, therapeutic response, and outcomes of patients(More)
BACKGROUND Angiosarcoma of the breast is a rare entity. The objectives of this study were to evaluate prognostic factors and determine outcomes in a large contemporary series of patients. METHODS Clinical and pathologic factors were analyzed in all patients with angiosarcoma of the breast treated between 1990 and 2003. Overall survival (OS) and(More)
BACKGROUND Melanoma incidence continues to increase in whites, but little is known about melanoma in minority populations. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data were used to examine the incidence, manifestations, and survival in patients with melanoma with respect to race/ethnicity. METHODS A SEER search (1992-2002) for primary invasive(More)
We sought to define the incidence, risk factors, symptoms, and quality of life (QOL) outcomes associated with various degrees of postoperative limb volume change (LVC). A prospective cohort study was performed obtaining serial limb volume measurements using a perometer on 269 women undergoing surgery for breast cancer. Four groups were created based on(More)
Somatic recombination of TCR genes in immature thymocytes results in some cells with useful TCR specificities, but also many with useless or potentially self-reactive specificities. Thus thymic selection mechanisms operate to shape the T-cell repertoire. Thymocytes that have a TCR with low affinity for self-peptide-MHC complexes are positively selected to(More)
Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) express members of the tumor-necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), but the role of those receptors in the thymic development of Treg cells is undefined. We found here that Treg cell progenitors had high expression of the TNFRSF members GITR, OX40 and TNFR2. Expression of those receptors correlated directly with(More)
Granule cell migration influences the laminar structure of the cerebellum and thereby affects cerebellum function. Bergmann glia are derived from radial glial cells and aid in granule cell radial migration by providing a scaffold for migration and by mediating interactions between Bergmann glia and granule cells. In this review, we summarize Bergmann glia(More)
BACKGROUND Mucinous, medullary, and tubular carcinomas are uncommon types of breast cancer whose rarity does not permit large single-institution studies or randomized trials to define optimal treatments. In this study, we evaluated the long-term outcomes of breast-conserving therapy (BCT) for these subtypes of breast cancer and compared them with those for(More)