Learn More
A major barrier to regenerating axons after injury in the mammalian central nervous system is an unfavorable milieu. Three proteins found in myelin--Nogo, MAG, and OMgp--inhibit axon regeneration in vitro and bind to the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored Nogo receptor (NgR). However, genetic deletion of NgR has only a modest disinhibitory effect,(More)
PDZ domains are protein-protein interaction modules that recognize specific C-terminal sequences to assemble protein complexes in multicellular organisms. By scanning billions of random peptides, we accurately map binding specificity for approximately half of the over 330 PDZ domains in the human and Caenorhabditis elegans proteomes. The domains recognize(More)
Haploinsufficiency of Dll4, a vascular-specific Notch ligand, has shown that it is essential for embryonic vascular development and arteriogenesis. Mechanistically, it is unclear how the Dll4-mediated Notch pathway contributes to complex vascular processes that demand meticulous coordination of multiple signalling pathways. Here we show that Dll4-mediated(More)
The P300 in event-related potentials (ERPs) has been implicated in outcome evaluation and reward processing, but it is controversial as to what aspects of reward processing it is sensitive. This study manipulated orthogonally reward valence, reward magnitude, and expectancy towards reward magnitude in a monetary gambling task and observed both the valence(More)
Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) guides the development of the nervous and vascular systems. Binding to either semaphorins or VEGF, NRP1 acts with plexins to regulate neuronal guidance, or with VEGFR2 to mediate vascular development. We have generated two monoclonal antibodies that bind to the Sema- and VEGF-binding domains of NRP1, respectively. Both antibodies reduce(More)
Deep learning has attracted tremendous attention from researchers in various fields of information engineering such as AI, computer vision, and language processing [Kalchbrenner and Blunsom, 2013; Krizhevsky et al., 2012; Mnih et al., 2013], but also from more traditional sciences such as physics, biology, and manufacturing [Anjos et al., 2015; Baldi et(More)
Overexpression of FGF receptor 3 (FGFR3) is implicated in the development of t(4;14)-positive multiple myeloma. While FGFR3 is frequently overexpressed and/or activated through mutations in bladder cancer, the functional importance of FGFR3 and its potential as a specific therapeutic target in this disease have not been elucidated in vivo. Here we report(More)
Metastasis, which commonly uses lymphatics, accounts for much of the mortality associated with cancer. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C coreceptor, neuropilin-2 (Nrp2), modulates but is not necessary for developmental lymphangiogenesis, and its significance for metastasis is unknown. An antibody to Nrp2 that blocks VEGFC binding disrupts(More)
The four receptors of the Notch family are widely expressed transmembrane proteins that function as key conduits through which mammalian cells communicate to regulate cell fate and growth. Ligand binding triggers a conformational change in the receptor negative regulatory region (NRR) that enables ADAM protease cleavage at a juxtamembrane site that(More)