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When electrons are confined in two-dimensional materials, quantum-mechanically enhanced transport phenomena such as the quantum Hall effect can be observed. Graphene, consisting of an isolated single atomic layer of graphite, is an ideal realization of such a two-dimensional system. However, its behaviour is expected to differ markedly from the well-studied(More)
When electrons are confined in two-dimensional (2D) materials, quantum mechanically enhanced transport phenomena, as exemplified by the quantum Hall effects (QHE), can be observed. Graphene, an isolated single atomic layer of graphite, is an ideal realization of such a 2D system. Its behaviour is, however, expected to differ dramatically from the(More)
Photothermal therapy (PTT) at present, following the temperature definition for conventional thermal therapy, usually keeps the temperature of lesions at 42-45 °C or even higher. Such high temperature kills cancer cells but also increases the damage of normal tissues near lesions through heat conduction and thus brings about more side effects and inhibits(More)
We report evidence that adenylate kinase (AK) from Escherichia coli can be activated by the direct binding of a magnesium ion to the enzyme, in addition to ATP-complexed Mg(2+). By systematically varying the concentrations of AMP, ATP, and magnesium in kinetic experiments, we found that the apparent substrate inhibition of AK, formerly attributed to AMP,(More)
In this Communication, we report fabrication of ultrabright water-dispersible silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) with quantum yields (QYs) up to 75% through a novelly designed chemical surface modification. A simple one-pot surface modification was developed that improves the photoluminescent QYs of SiNPs from 8% to 75% and meanwhile makes SiNPs(More)
Enzymes are remarkable molecular machines that make many difficult biochemical reactions possible under mild biological conditions with incredible precision and efficiency. Our understanding of the working principles of enzymes, however, has not reached the level where one can readily deduce the mechanism and the catalytic rates from an enzyme's structure.(More)
Accurate cell division requires the proper assembly of high-order septin structures. In fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe), Spn1-Spn4 are assembled into a primary septin ring at the division site, and the subsequent recruitment of Mid2 to the structure results in a stable septin ring. However, not much is known about the regulation of this key(More)
Neutral spin texture (ST) excitations at nu=1/3 are directly observed for the first time by resonant inelastic light scattering. They are determined to involve two simultaneous spin flips. At low magnetic fields, the ST energy is below that of the magnetoroton minimum. With increasing in-plane magnetic field these mode energies cross at a critical ratio of(More)
Single-molecule Fӧrster-type resonance energy transfer (smFRET) is a unique technique capable of following conformational motions of individual protein molecules. The direct observation of individual proteins provides rich information that would be washed away in ensemble measurements, hence opening up new avenues for establishing the protein(More)
Cellular informational and metabolic processes are propagated with specific membrane fusions governed by soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNARE). SNARE protein Ykt6 is highly expressed in brain neurons and plays a critical role in the membrane-trafficking process. Studies suggested that Ykt6 undergoes a conformational(More)
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