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In the mammalian ovary, progressive activation of primordial follicles from the dormant pool serves as the source of fertilizable ova. Menopause, or the end of female reproductive life, occurs when the primordial follicle pool is exhausted. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying follicle activation are poorly understood. We provide genetic evidence(More)
Shigella bacteria cause dysentery, which remains a significant threat to public health. Shigella flexneri is the most common species in both developing and developed countries. Five Shigella genomes have been sequenced, revealing dynamic and diverse features. To investigate the intra-species diversity of S. flexneri genomes further, we have sequenced the(More)
To maintain the female reproductive lifespan, the majority of ovarian primordial follicles are preserved in a quiescent state in order to provide ova for later reproductive life. However, the molecular mechanism that maintains the long quiescence of primordial follicles is poorly understood. Here we provide genetic evidence to show that the tumor suppressor(More)
It has been generally accepted for more than half a century that, in most mammalian species, oocytes cannot renew themselves in postnatal or adult life, and that the number of oocytes is already fixed in fetal or neonatal ovaries. This assumption, however, has been challenged over the past decade. In this study, we have taken an endogenous genetic approach(More)
The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important for the innate immune system by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns expressed in infectious agents. E6 and E7 protein from HPV16 suppress the host immune response by regulating the TLR9 transcript. Therefore, we hypothesized that a single nucleotide polymorphism in TLR9 may contribute to cervical(More)
In recent years, mammalian oocytes have been proposed to have important roles in the orchestration of ovarian follicular development and fertility. To determine whether intra-oocyte Foxo3a, a component of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway, influences follicular development and female fertility, a transgenic mouse model was generated(More)
Most mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from a 129 or C57BL/6 background, whereas the derivation efficiency of ES cells is extremely low on certain refractory types of background for which ES cells are highly desired. Here we report an optimized, highly efficient protocol by combining pluripotin, a small molecule, and leukemia inhibitory factor(More)
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) modifies a variety of nuclear proteins by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, and plays diverse roles in molecular and cellular processes. A common PARP1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at codon 762, resulting in the substitution of alanine (Ala) for valine (Val) in the catalytic domain has been implicated in susceptibility to(More)
Histone acetylation plays critical roles in chromatin remodeling, DNA repair, and epigenetic regulation of gene expression, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Proteasomes usually catalyze ATP- and polyubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. Here, we show that the proteasomes containing the activator PA200 catalyze the polyubiquitin-independent degradation(More)
In humans, the molecular mechanisms underlying ovarian follicle endowment and activation, which are closely related to the control of female reproduction, occurrence of menopause, and related diseases such as premature ovarian failure, are poorly understood. In the current study, we provide several lines of genetic evidence that the cyclin-dependent kinase(More)