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With the advent of dense maps of human genetic variation, it is now possible to detect positive natural selection across the human genome. Here we report an analysis of over 3 million polymorphisms from the International HapMap Project Phase 2 (HapMap2). We used 'long-range haplotype' methods, which were developed to identify alleles segregating in a(More)
We have sequenced the genome of Shigella flexneri serotype 2a, the most prevalent species and serotype that causes bacillary dysentery or shigellosis in man. The whole genome is composed of a 4 607 203 bp chromosome and a 221 618 bp virulence plasmid, designated pCP301. While the plasmid shows minor divergence from that sequenced in serotype 5a, striking(More)
Mutations in TARDBP, encoding TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43), are associated with TDP-43 proteinopathies, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). We compared wild-type TDP-43 and an ALS-associated mutant TDP-43 in vitro and in vivo. The A315T mutant enhances neurotoxicity and the formation of aberrant(More)
Bacterial pathogens continue to impose a major threat to public health worldwide in the 21st century. Intensified studies on bacterial pathogenesis have greatly expanded our knowledge about the mechanisms of the disease processes at the molecular level over the last decades. To facilitate future research, it becomes necessary to form a database collectively(More)
The Shigella bacteria cause bacillary dysentery, which remains a significant threat to public health. The genus status and species classification appear no longer valid, as compelling evidence indicates that Shigella, as well as enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, are derived from multiple origins of E.coli and form a single pathovar. Nevertheless, Shigella(More)
Modifying the genomes of many organisms is becoming as easy as manipulating DNA in test tubes, which is made possible by two recently developed techniques based on either the customizable DNA binding protein, TALEN, or the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Here, we describe a series of efficient applications derived from these two technologies, in combination with(More)
Negative symptoms commonly seen in chronic schizophrenia are related to prefrontal hypodopaminergia. Dysfunction of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has long been thought to confer susceptibility to schizophrenia because of its catalytic activity for dopamine degradation. The present study is an attempt to perform a quantitative trait test for(More)
Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) is the enzyme responsible for degradation of several monoamines, such as dopamine and serotonin that are considered as being two of the most important neurotransmitters involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. To study a possible role of the MAOA gene in conferring susceptibility to schizophrenia, the present study(More)
Staphylococcus epidermidis strains are diverse in their pathogenicity; some are invasive and cause serious nosocomial infections, whereas others are non-pathogenic commensal organisms. To analyse the implications of different virulence factors in Staphylococcus epidermidis infections, the complete genome of Staphylococcus epidermidis strain ATCC 12228, a(More)